The increasing cost of peanut production is a major concern in Iran. Therefore, developing the mechanization of peanut production is a necessity. In this regard, a three-phase Delphi study was conducted to identify the promoting and deterring factors affecting peanut cultivation mechanization in Guilan Province, the main peanut-producing region in Iran. After preliminary studies, 26 experts were selected as respondents for the study. Based on the final results, ‘allocating provincial and national funds to develop mechanization’ (with the agreement of 98.07% of respondents), ‘Organizing training programs to increase farmers’ technical knowledge’ (97.12%), and ‘conducting the pilot and model projects’ (95.19%) were found to be the most important promoting factors in developing peanut cultivation mechanization in north of Iran. Moreover, ‘the small size and fragmentation of peanut farms’ (with 96.15% of respondents agreeing), ‘problems with the national and provincial programs of peanut mechanization’ (95.19%), and ‘low technical knowledge of farmers and craftsmen about peanut farming mechanization’ (94.23%) were identified as the most important deterring factors in developing peanut cultivation mechanization in north of Iran. Given the small area dedicated to peanut cultivation and the low income levels of peanut farmers in north of Iran, it seems that provincial and national funding allocation and peer-planned programming to import appropriate farm machinery are the most urgent plans to improve the status of mechanization of peanut cultivation in north of Iran.