Assistant professor, College of Agriculture, Khoramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran


This study was conducted to seek the opinion of walnut producers on barriers affecting the success of producers to found production cooperatives regarding horticultural products in Tuyserkan Township, Iran. A sample of 234 walnut producers were randomly selected through multistage cluster sampling technique. Descriptive- correlation research method was used in this study which has been implemented through the questionnaire. For determining the validity of questionnaire, the face and content validity was used. Reliability for the instrument was estimated at 0.94. According to factor analysis, barriers to found and develop walnut production cooperatives were categorized into seven groups that explained 65.799% of the total variance of the research variables. The results also indicated that lack of cultural infrastructures, inadequate knowledge and incorrect opinions of producers and leaders, inadequate laws and vulnerability and infrastructural barriers had the most effect to found and develop walnut production cooperatives, respectively.


1- Abbasi, R., Rasulzadeh, B., & Abbasi, P. (2009). Factors affecting success and failure of production cooperative of Ardebil province. Journal of Economic, Social and Cultural Cooperation, 20, 210 - 211.
2- Abdolmaleky, M. (2012). Preconditions of Small-Farmers' Empowerment to Success in Farm Operations in Lorestan Province, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 19 (4), 523-529.
3- Aref, F. (2011). Agricultural cooperatives for agricultural development in Iran. Life Science Journal, 8(1), 82-85.
4- Aref, F., & Sarjit, S. G. (2009). Rural tourism development through rural cooperatives. Nature and Sciences, 7(10), 68-73.
5- Allahdadi, F., & Aref, K. (2011). Agricultural production cooperatives in Iran: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of American Science, 7(12), 471-474.
6- Amini, A. M., & Ramezani, M. (2006). Evaluating factors effective on the success of poultry-farm cooperatives in Tehran. Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, 4, (55), 67- 89.
7- Bruynis, C., Goldsmith, P.D., Hahn, D. E., & Taylor, W. J. (2001). Critical success factors for emerging agricultural marketing cooperatives. Journal of Cooperatives, 16, 14-24.
8- Didi, B. (2004). Short communication fishing cooperatives participation in managing near shore resources: The case in Capiz, Central Philippians. Fisheries Research, 67, 81-91. [DOI via Crossref]   
9- Delavar, A. (2004). Theoretical and practical foundations of research in human sciences, (3 ed., pp. 199-203), Tehran, Publication of Roshd Institution.
10- Dunn, J.R., Crooks, A.C., Frederick, D.A., Kennedy, T.L., &, Wadsworth, J.J. (2002). Agricultural cooperatives in the 21st Century. Retrieved December 2, 2011, from http://www.rurdev. 60.pdf.
11- Hansen, J. R., & Henriksen, J. (2004). Farmer Empowerment. Experiences, lessons learned and ways forward. Technical Paper Vol. 1. Copenhagen: Danida, Technical Advisory Service. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from http:// www. diis. dk/ graphics/ Events/ 2004/ FarmerEmpowermentVol1Final.pdf.
12- International Labor Organization (2004). Development and advancement of cooperatives (Asghar Bayat, Trans.). Tehran: Paygan publication. Jihade- Agriculture of Tuyserkan (2013). Annual Statistics of the Agricultural Productions in Tuyserkan Township. Jihad-e-Agriculture, 50-55.
13- Karami, S.h., & Agahi, H. (2010a). Factors affecting the success of cooperatives: A case study off-season production cooperatives in Kermanshah province. Journal of Rural Development, 13(2), 31-60.
14- Karami, S.h., & Agahi, H. (2010b). Studying the role of creativity on the success of cooperatives.Paper Presented at the National Conference on Entrepreneurship and Development. University of Ilam, 15-16 May, 2010.
15- Kuhi, k. (2006). Pathological development of cooperatives in the province of East Azerbaijan. Journal of Taavon, 187-188.
16- Mokhtari, V. A., Ahmadpour, & Poursaeed, A. (2012). Regression analysis of factors in the agricultural success of production cooperatives of Ilam.Trends in Advanced Science and Engineering, 4(2), 100-109. Retrieved from http://www.sciroad. com/ntase.html.
17- Nelson, S.J., & Thompson, G.W. (2005). Barriers perceived by administrators and faculty regarding the use of distance education technologies in preservice programs for secondary agricultural education teachers. Journal Agriculture Education, 46, 36-48. [DOI via Crossref]   
18- Prakash, D. (2002). Development of Agricultural Cooperatives-Relevance of Japanese Experiences to Developing Countries. Paper Presented at the14th ICA-Japan International Training Cource on "Strengthening Management of Agricultural Cooperatives in Asia". IDACA-Japan. Retreived: March 18, 2012, from http//: http:// www. uwcc. wisc. edu/ info/ intl/ daman_japan.pdf.
19- Rehman, T., McKemey, K., Yates, C.M., Cooke, R.J., Garforth, C.J., Tranter, R.B, Park, J.R., & Dorward, P.T. (2007). Identifying and understanding factors influencing the uptake of new technologies on dairy farms in SW England using the theory of reasoned action. Agricultural Systems, 94, 281-293. [DOI via Crossref]   
20- Safari, H, Aryanfar K.h., & Ebrahimi, A. (2009). Factors influencing the success of cooperative companies. Journal of Economic, Social and Cultural Cooperation, 20 (212), 33-51.
21- Tanzanian Federation of Cooperatives (2006). Cooperatives and development in Tanzania. Retrieved January, 10, 2011, from Cooperatives.pdf.
22- Zarafshani, K., Rostamitabar, F., Hosseininia, G.H., Akbari, M., & Azadi, H. (2010). Are agricultural production cooperatives successful? A case study in Western Iran. American Eurasian Journal Agriculture & Environment Science, 8(4), 482-486.
23- Zara'nezhad, M., & B. Sharifi (2008). Studying attitudes of members and managers of cooperatives of Ilam province to factors effective on improving productivity: (Case Study: Consumer cooperatives of Ilam province). Journal of Humanity and Social Sciences, Especially For Management, 8(29), 118 - 97.