Authors

1 Department of Biosystems Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

3 Department of Horticultural Science, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

Abstract

In this research, the energy flow and production energy indices of canola cultivation in Trakya province of Turkey, Golestan and Mazandaran provinces of Iran were compared. Diesel fuel and chemical fertilizer inputs were the highest consumer of energy in the production of canola in these three regions. The results indicated that despite the higher energy use of machinery in Trakya province of Turkey, the energy use of diesel fuel in this province is less than the energy consumed in the two northern provinces of Iran, which could be due to available old machines for the production of canola in Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. Total greenhouse gas emissions of canola production for these regions were computed 562.85, 652.86 and 887.30 kgCO 2 eq ha, respectively. The inputs of chemical fertilizer and diesel fuel in canola production produced the highest percentage of gas emissions in these three areas. Energy consumption for potential feedstock production for one kg production of biodiesel fuel in these provinces was calculated as 14.76, 20.66 and 37.77 MJ, respectively. The amounts of greenhouse gas emissions for potential feedstock production for one kg production of biodiesel were obtained 0.45, 0.76 and 1.17 kgCO 2 eq for Trakya, Golestan and Mazandaran provinces, respectively.

Keywords

1- Acaroglu, M., & Aydogan, H. (2012). Biofuels energy sources and future of biofuels energy in Turkey. Biomass and Bioenergy, 36, 69-76. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
2- Aghaalikhani, M., Kazemi-Poshtmasari, H., & Habibzadeh, F. (2013). Energy use pattern in rice production: A case study from Mazandaran province, Iran. Energy Conversion and Management, 69, 157-162. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
3- Ahmad, AL., Yasin, N.H.M., Derek, C.J.C., & Lim, J.K. (2011). Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15,584-593. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
4- Asgharipour, M.R., Mondani, F., & Riahinia, S. (2012). Energy use efficiency and economic analysis of sugar beet production system in Iran: A case study in Khorasan Razavi province. Energy, 44,1078-1084. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
5- Aytav, E., & Kocar, G. (2013). Biodiesel from the perspective of Turkey: Past, present and future. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, 335-350. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
6- Banaeian, N., Omid, M., & Ahmadi, H., (2011). Energy and economic analysis of greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran province of Iran. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 1020-1025. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
7- Beheshti-Tabar, I., Keyhani, A., & Rafiee, S. (2010). Energy balance in Iran's agronomy (1990– 2006). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 849-855. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
8- Çetin, B., & Vardar, A. (2008). An economic analysis of energy requirements and input costs for tomato production in Turkey. Renewable Energy, 33, 428-433. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
9- Dyer, J.A., & Desjardins, R.L. (2003). Simulated farm fieldwork, energy consumption and related greenhouse gas emissions in Canada. Biosystems Engineering, 85, 503-513. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
10- Dyer, J.A., & Desjardins, R.L. (2006). Carbon Dioxide Emissions associated with the manufacturing of tractors and farm machinery in Canada. Biosystems Engineering, 93, 107-118. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
11- Erdal, G., Esengun, K., Erdal, H., & Gunduz, O. (2007). Energy use and economical analysis of sugar beet production in Tokat province of Turkey. Energy, 32, 35-41. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
12- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2012). FAOSTAT, Available on: www.fao.org 20- Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture of Iran (MAJ). (2012). Annual Agricultural Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.maj.ir (In Persian). 33- Sims, R.E.H., & Sayigh, A. (2003). Bioenergy options for a cleaner environment: in developed and developing countries. Elsevier Science. 35- Taheri-Garavand, A., Asakereh, A., & Haghani, K. (2010). Energy elevation and economic analysis of canola production in Iran a case study: Mazandaran province. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1, 236-242.
 
13- Ghobadian, B. (2012). Liquid biofuels potential and outlook in Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 4379-4384. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
14- Heidari, M.D., & Omid, M. (2011). Energy use patterns and econometric models of major greenhouse vegetable productions in Iran. Energy, 36, 220-225. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
15- Kant, S., Burch, D., Ehrenberger, W., Bitter, R., Ruger, S., Mason, J., Zimmermann, U., & Spangenberg, G. (2014). A novel crop water analysis system: identification of water stress tolerant genotypes of canola (Brassica napus L.) using non-invasive magnetic turgor pressure probes. Plant Breeding: [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
 
16- Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Omid, M., Yousefi, M., & Movahedi, M. (2013). Modeling of energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in wheat production in Esfahan province of Iran using artificial neural networks. Energy, 52, 333-338. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
17- Kuswardhani, N., Soni, P., & Shivakoti, G. P. (2013). Comparative energy input–output and financial analyses of greenhouse and open field vegetables production in West Java, Indonesia. Energy, 53, 83-92. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
18- Lal, R. (2004). Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International, 30, 981-990. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
 
19- Liu, B., Wang, F., Zhang, B., & Bi, J. (2013). Energy balance and GHG emissions of cassavabased fuel ethanol using different planting modes in China. Energy Policy, 56, 210-220. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
21- Mohammadi, A., & Omid, M. (2010). Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran. Applied Energy, 87, 191-196. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
22- Mohammadi, A., Tabatabaeefar, A., Shahin, S., Rafiee, S., & Keyhani, A. (2008). Energy use and economical analysis of potato production in Iran a case study: Ardabil province. Energy Conversion and Management, 49, 3566-3570. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
23- Mousavi-Avval, S.H., Rafiee, S., Jafari, A., & Mohammadi, A. (2011). Energy flow modeling and sensitivity analysis of inputs for canola production in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19, 1464-1470. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
24- Nikkhah, A., Khojastehpour, M., Emadi, B., Taheri-Rad, A., & Khorramdel, S. (2015). Environmental impacts of peanut production system using life cycle assessment methodology. Journal of Cleaner Production, [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
 
25- Ozkan, B., Akcaoz, H., & Fert, C. (2004). Energy input–output analysis in Turkish agriculture. Renewable Energy, 29, 39-51. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
26- Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Sefeedpari, P., & Ghahderijani, M. (2012). Exploring energy consumption and CO [sub 2] emission of cotton production in Iran. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, [DOI via Crossref]    [DOI via Crossref]   
 
27- Rajaeifar, M.A., Ghobadian, B., Safa, M., & Heidari, M.D. (2014). Energy life-cycle assessment and CO2 emissions analysis of soybean-based biodiesel: a case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 66, 233-241. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
28- Ramedani, Z., Rafiee, S., & Heidari, M.D. (2011). An investigation on energy consumption and sensitivity analysis of soybean production farms. Energy, 36, 6340-6344. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
29- Rempel, C.B., Hutton, S.N., & Jurke, C.J. (2014). Clubroot and the importance of canola in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 36, 19-26. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
30- Safieddin-Ardebili, M., Ghobadian, B., Najafi, G., & Chegeni, A. (2011). Biodiesel production potential from edible oil seeds in Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 3041-3044. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
31- Salehi, M., Ebrahimi, R., Maleki, A., & Ghasemi Mobtaker, H. (2014). An assessment of energy modeling and input costs for greenhouse button mushroom production in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production, 64, 377-383. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
32- Samavatean, N., Rafiee, S., Mobli, H., & Mohammadi, A. (2011). An analysis of energy use and relation between energy inputs and yield, costs and income of garlic production in Iran. Renewable Energy, 36, 1808-1813. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
34- Soltani, A., Rajabi, M.H., Zeinali, E., & Soltani, E. (2013). Energy inputs and greenhouse gases emissions in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran. Energy, 50, 54-61. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
36- Unakitan, G., Hurma, H., & Yilmaz, F. (2010). An analysis of energy use efficiency of canola production in Turkey. Energy, 35, 3623-3627. [DOI via Crossref]   
 
37- Yilmaz, I., Akcaoz, H., & Ozkan, B. (2005). An analysis of energy use and input costs for cotton production in Turkey. Renewable Energy, 30,145-155. [DOI via Crossref]