Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran


Food security has a dynamic notion during the time and may be affected by various domestic and global factors.Nevertheless, Iranian policy makers consider food security as same as self-sufficiency in agricultural food products, particularly wheat production. However, self-sufficiency can contribute to food security only if it is in coincidences with comparative advantage and sustainable resource management. The present study aims to investigate the coincidences of self-sufficiency and comparative advantage and the real impact of selfsufficiency on net social benefit as a measure of food security; by developing a Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) to analyze the trend of comparative advantage and self-sufficiency measures for the past decade. The data for wheat input-output quantities and their domestic prices during the period of study were obtained from production and cost system of agricultural products, and other relevant information collected from World Bank statistics and FAO database. The results showed that the self-sufficiency policy through price supports, inputs and credit subsidies and research and extension programs, has increased the physical productivity of wheat farms as well as increased the area under cultivation. However, the net social profit of wheat production was negative during the period of study, indicating a negative effect of self-sufficiency policy on the food security.


1- Cai, J., Leung, P., & Loke, M. (2007). Comparative advantage of selected agricultural products in Hawai: A revealed comparative advantage assessment. Economic Issues Of Extension Service/CTAHR, University of Hawai, EI-11: 1-15.
2- Daneshvar-Kakhaki, M., Dehghanian, S., Hatef, H., & Sarvari, A. (2008). Investigation of comparative advantage in dry and irrigated wheat in Mashhad plain. Agricultural Economics and Development. 22(1), 55-63. (in Persian)
3- Ecker, O., & Breisinger, C. (2012). The Food Security System: A New Conceptual Framework. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01166
4- FAO. (1996). Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action.World Food Summit 13-17 November 1996. Rome.
5- FAO. (2003). TRADE REFORMS AND FOOD SECURITY: Conceptualizing the Linkages. FAO corporate document repository, Document ID 144369. Retrieved 2014/10/01 from
6- FAO. (1996). Rome declaration on world food Security and world food summit plan of action, W3613E00. Accessed January 3, 2012. - FAO. 2009b. Declaration of the world summit on food security, WSFS 2009/2. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The Food Security System.
7- Gonzales, L.A.,F. Kasrino, N.D. Peres and M.W.Rosegrant, 1993. Economic incentives and comparative advantage in Indonesian food production. Research Report No . 93 . International Food Policy Research Institute . washington, D.C.
8- Goodarzi, M., & Sadrolashrafi, M. (2007). The study of effective factors on the trend of measures obtained from policy analysis matrix for irrigated wheat in Iran. Proceeding of 6th biennial conference of Iran agricultural economics. University of Ferdowsi Mashhad. (in Persian)
9- Haji-Rahimi, M. (1997). Comparative advantages and economic incentives of farm crops in Fars province. MSc thesis, University of Shiraz, Faculty of Agriclture. (in Persian)
10- Hassanpour, B., Asadi, E., & Biniaz, A. (2013). Investigation of policies effects and comparative advantage of rainbow trout farming in KB province, Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Science. 6(1), 31-34.
11- Hoseinzad, J. Esfahani, S. J., & Dashti, G. (2009). Investigation of the impacts of government supportive policies on the production of agricultural products: a case study in West Azzarbayjan. Journal of sustainable agriculture and production science. 19(1), 35-49. (in Persian)
12- Hooman, T., & Hoseini, M. 2003. Calculation of domestic resource cost fo agricultural crops in East Azarbayjan province. Iranian Journal of Trade Studies. 7(27), 91-109. (in Persian)
13- Islami, M., & Mahmoudi, A. (2008). Evaluation of competitiveness and comparative advantage of agricultural crops using policy analysis matrix in Lorestan province. Journal of Research in Agricultural Science. 4(2), 238-254. (in Persian)
14- Jafari, A.M. (2001). Economic incentives and comparative advantage of agricultural product in Hamadan province. Research report, Center of Agricultural Resaerch of Hamadan. (in Persian)
15- Jolaei, R. (2004). Manangement of cropping pattern of agricultural crops in three central townships of Fars province in a multi-regional model. Ph.D. thesis, University of Tarbiat moddares, Tehran. (in Persian)
16- Jolaei, R., & jayran, A. (2008). Comarative advantage or self-sufficiency: an applied study for selecting the strategy of wheat production in Iran. Agricultural Economics and Development. 16(62),147-162. (in Persian)
17- Karbasi, A., & Rastegaripour, F. (2009). The analysis of comparative advantage of wheat in Sistan province. Agricultural Economics and Development. 23(1),105-121. (in Persian)
18- Monke, E., & Pearson, S. (1989). The policy analysis matrix for agricultural development, Ithaca.NY: Cornell University Press.
19- Masters, W.A., & Winter – Nelson, A. (1995). Measuring the comparative advantage of agricultural activities: domestic resource costs and social cost – benefit ratio. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 77: 251- 259. [DOI via Crossref]   
20- Maxwell, S. (1996). Food security: a post-modern perspective. Food Policy. 21 (2): 155-170 [DOI via Crossref]   
21- Maxwell, S., & R. Slater. (2003). "Food Policy Old and New." Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 531-553 [DOI via Crossref]   
22 - Palooch, M., Saeinia, A., & Jairan, A. (2011). Jihad, sulf-sufficiency and food security. Jihad Sazandagi Quaterly Journal. 1(1), 41-54. (in Persian)
23- Shahnooshi, N. Ghorbani, M., & Dehghanian, S. (2005). Determination of comparative advantage of main agricultural crops of Khorasan province. Resaerch report, University of Ferdowsi Mashhad, Faculty of Agriclture. (in Persian)
24- Shujie, Y. (1997). Comparative advantages and crop diversification : a policy analysis for thai agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Economics. 48(2), 211-222.
25- Tobey, J.A., & Chomo, G.V. (1994) . Resource supplies and changing word agricultural comparative advantage. Agricultural Econmics. 10: 207 –217. [DOI via Crossref]   
26- Sanderson, T., & Ahmadi-Esfahani, F. (2009). Testing comparative advantage in Australian broad acre agriculture under climate change: Theoretical and Empirical Models. Economic papers. 28 (4),346-354. [DOI via Crossref]   
27-Yan, X., Yeping, Z., & Shijuan, L. (2010) .Application of comparative advantage theory in China's county-level agricultural economic information. World Automation Congress (WAC), 2010, 367 – 370
28- Zare. S. (2005). Investigation of comapartive advanatage of major crops and the effect of government intervention on the sector of agriculture of khorasan province. Proceeding of 5th binial conference of Iran agricultural economics. University of Zahedan. (in Persian).