Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Economic and Development, University of Tehran, .Iran.

Abstract

Nowadays, there is an agreement among organizations that reinforcing of education leads to the improvement of organizational performance. The emphasis on the human capital in organizations reflects the view that market values depend less on tangible resources, but more on intangible ones, particularly human resources. The main purpose of this study was to design a model for faculty members in public Agricultural Higher Education in Iran. A survey method was used to collect data from nine Public Agricultural Faculties in Iran. Samples were collected from faculty members using a simple random sampling method (n=284) and a questionnaire was used as the main research instrument to collect data. Reliability and validity were calculated using Structural Equation Modeling through LISREL software, version 8.54 (above 0.7). Finally, a model was developed and tested for faculty members in Agricultural Higher Education System in Iran. The findings showed that contextual variables (i.e. personal, organizational, social, educational, and professional development) had direct impacts on the process of Human Resource Development (HRD). Furthermore, personal and organizational development had direct and indirect impacts on HRD (R2 = 0.70). 

Highlights

  • The current study showed a large and growing body of evidence demonstrating a positive linkage between the development of HRD and performance
  • Personal, social, professional, organizational, and educational development has a significant relationship with the process of HRD.
  • Organizational factor is one of the most important factors which directly and indirectly affect HRD process and product

Keywords

Main Subjects

1- Ahmady, S. (2009). Faculty development in Medical education: A comprehensive approach. Unpublished dissertation, Karolinsika Institute, Stockholm Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10616 /38549

2- Akbari, M., Hosseini, S.M., Hejazi, S.Y., & Rezvanfar, A. (2012). Validation components of Human Resource Development: the case of Agricultural Faculty Members. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 44(4), 629-644.

3- Beijaard, D. Meijer, P. C. Morine-Dershimer, G. Tillema, H. & Goodwin, D. R. (2005). Comprehensive Development of Teachers Based on in-Depth Portraits of Teacher Growth. Teacher Professional Development in Changing Conditions (pp. 231-243), Springer Netherlands.

4- Bergquist,W.H., & Phillips, S.R. (1975). Components of an effective faculty development program. Journal of Higher Education. 44(2), 177-211.

5- Browell, S. (2000). Staff development and professional education: A cooperative model. Journal of Workplace Learning, 12 (2), 57-65.

6- Centra, J.A. (1977). Faculty development practices. New Directions for Higher Education, 1977(17), 49-55.

7- Yin, C. C. (2006). New paradigm for re-engineering education: Globalization, localization and individualization (Vol. 6). Springer Science & Business Media.

8- Dirani, K. (2006). Exploring Socio-Cultural Factors that Influence HRD Practices in Lebanon. Human Resource Development International, 9(1), 85-98.

9- Donnelly, M. B. Dove, T. Tiffany-Morales, J. Adelman, N. & Zucker, A. (2002). Technology- Related Professional Development in the Context of Educational Reform: A Literature Review. Arlington. VA: SRI International.1-55

10- Etzkowitz, H. (2004). The evolution of the Entrepreneurial University. International Journal of Technology and Globalization, 1(1), 64-77.

11- Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

12- Garavan, T, N, Heraty, N, & Barnicle, B. (1999). Human resource development literature: Current issues, priorities and dilemmas. Journal of European Industrial Training, 23 (4-5), 169-179.

13- Garavan, T, N. O’Donnell, D. McGuire, D, & Watson. S. (2007). Exploring perspectives on human resource development: an introduction. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(1), 3-10.

14- Garet, M S, Porter, A C, Desimone, L, Binnan, B F, & Yoon, K S. (2001). What Makes Professional Development Effective? Results from a National Sample of Teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 38(4), 915-945.

15- Ginsburg, M. B. (1991). Understanding educational reform in global context: Economy, ideology, and the state (Vol. 663). Taylor & Francis.

16- Grieves, J, & Redman, T. (1999). Living in the shadow of OD: HRD and the search for identity. Human Resource Development International, 2(2), 81-103.

17- Hamlin, B., & Stewart, J. (2011). What is HRD? A definitional review and synthesis of the HRD domain. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(3), 199-220. doi: 10.1108/03090591111120377

18- Hamlin, R.G. (2007). An Evidence-Based Perspective on HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 9(42), 42-57. doi: 10.1177/152342230 6294494

19- Hamlin, R.G. Ellinger, A D., & Beattie, R. S. (2008). The emergent ‘coaching industry’: a wakeup call for HRD professionals. Human Resource Development International, 11(3), 287-305.

20- Harrison, R. (1998). Employee development. Universities Press.

21- Haslinda, A. (2009). Definitions of HRD: Key Concepts from a National and International Context. European Journal of Social Sciences 10(4), 486-495.

22- Hejazi, S, Y. & Rostami, F. (2010). A Study of the Factors Affecting the University of Tehran Agricultural Colleges’ Faculty Members’ Professional Development. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economicsand Development Research, 4(22), 347-358.

23- Hendricson, W. D., Anderson, E., Andrieu, S. C., Chadwick, D. G., Cole, J. R., George, M. C., & Kalkwarf, K. L. (2007). Does faculty development enhance teaching effectiveness. Journal of Dental Education, 71(12), 1513-1533.

24- Holland, N. & Aitken, A. (1999). HR, line and  IS as business partners in IT-related change: Will you, won’t you, join the dance? AMED News, 10. April/May 10.

25- Hosseini, S. M. (1991). Faculty development needs and preferred developmental strategies as perceived by faculty members of Iranian agricultural colleges. Cornell University, Aug.

26- Iles, P. & Yolles, M. (2003). International HRD alliances in viable knowledge migration and development: The Czech Academic Link Project. Human Resource Development International, 6(3), 301-324.

27- Jeliazkova, M. & Westerheijden, D. F. (2002). Systemic adoption to a changing environment: Towards a next generation of quality assurance models. Higher Education, 44(3-4), 433-448. doi: 10.1023/A: 1019834105675.

28- Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educ psychol Meas. 30, 607-610.

29- Mabey, C., & Salaman, G. (1995). Strategic Human Resource Management: Oxford: Blackwell Business.

30- Mankin, D.P. (2001). A model for human resource development. Human Resource Development International,  4(1), 65-85. doi: 10.1080/13678860121714

31- Marquardt, M., & Engel, D. (1993). Global Human Resource Development: Prentice Hall.

32- Marsick, V. & Watkins, K. (1994). The learning organization: an integrative vision for HRD. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 5(4), 353 – 360.

33- Mc-Goldrick, J., Stewart, J., & Watson, S. (2001). Theorizing human resource development. Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 343-356.

34- McLagan, P. (1989). Models for HRD Practice (Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press).

35- McLean, G. N., & McLean, L.D. (2001). If we can’t define HRD in one country, how can we define it in an international context? Human Resource Development International, 4(3), 313-326.

36- McLean, M., Cilliers, F., & Van Wyk, J.M. (2008). Faculty development: yesterday, today and tomorrow. Medical Teache, 30(6), 555-584. doi: 10.1080/01421590802109834

37- Megginson, D., Matthews, J.J., & Banfield, P. (2000). Human Resource Development (2 Ed.): London, Kogan.

38- Mirzaee, H. (2004). Influenced Factors of Iranian Women Economical Participating. Women Research Journal, 2(1),113-132

39- Nunnally, J.C., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric Theory: McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

40- Parker, S.C., & Coleman, J. (1999). Training in the UK: Does national ownership matter? International Journal of Training and Development, 3(4), 278-291.

41- Pobre, E. (1996). Paradigm development among practicing school mathematics teachers. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

42- Raj Adhikari, D. (2010). Human resource development (HRD) for performance management: The case of Nepalese organizations. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 59(4), 306-324. doi:10.1108/17410401011 038883

43- Ransdell, S., Hawkins, C., & Adams, R. (2001). Models, modelling, and the design of the study. International Journal of Educational Research, 35(4), 365-372.

44- Rhodes, C., & Houghton-Hill, S. (2000). The linkage of continuing professional development and the classroom experience of pupils: Barriers perceived by senior managers in some secondary schools. Journal of In-Service Education, 26(3), 423-435.

45- Sadeghi, F., Hosseini, S.M. Rezvanfar, A., Sharifzadeh, A., & Moridosadat, P. (2009). An Analysis of the Factors that Influence Faculty Professional Development in Agricultural Faculties. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 2(4), 69-77. (in Persian)

46- Sadeghi, M., & Emadzade, M. (2004). An Analysis of Economical Factors in Iranian Women Employment. Women Research Journal, 2(1), 5-22. (in Persian)

47- Shahpasand, M.R. (2005). Determining professional development components and its impacts on empowerment of Agricultural educators. (unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Tehran, Iran.

48- Shin, J. C., & Harman, G. (2009). New challenges for higher education: Global and Asia-Pacific perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(1), 1- 13. doi: 10.1007/s12564-009-9011-6

49- Siegel, M.E. (1980). Empirical findings on faculty development programs. Effective approaches to faculty development. 131-144. Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges.

50- Somers, J., & Sikorova, E. (2002). The effectiveness of an in-service education on teachers’ course for influencing teachers' practice. Journal of In-Service Education, 28(1), 95-114.

51- Steinert, Y., & Mann, K.V. (2006). Faculty development: principles and practices. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 33(3), 317-324.

52- Stiles, P.H., & Kulvisaechana, S. (2011). Judge Institute of Management: University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.

53- Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2001). Foundations of human resource development. Berrett- Koehler Publishers.

54- Thomson, R. & Mabey, C. (1994). Developing Human Resources: London: Butterworth Heinemann .

55- Tjepkema, S., Stewart, J., Sambrook, S., Mulder, M., Horst, H., & Schecrens, J. (2002). HRD and Learning Organizations in Europe: Routledge, London.

56- Wang, X. & McLean, G. N. (2007). The dilemma of defining international human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 6(1), 96-108.

57- Wood, E K. & Millichamp, P. (2000). Changing the learning ethos in school. Journal of In-Service Education, 26(3), 499-515.

58- Zidan, S.S. (2001). The Role of HRD in Economic Development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12(4). 437-447.