Document Type: Original Article


1 Agricultural Jihad Organization, Kermanshah. Iran.

2 Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah. Iran

3 Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Science, Razi University, Kermanshah. Iran

4 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


This paper focuses on the amount of diesel consumption as one of the non-renewable energy sources consumed by the agricultural machinery and water pumps in wheat and corn farms in Dire County,Kermanshah Province, Iran. The population of the study was determined by Bartlett table. Stratified random sampling method and census was used for the selection of respondents. The sample was composed of 247 wheat growers, 235 corn growers, and 57 tractor drivers selected by Bartlett’s table. Combine drivers as well as farm irrigation diesel owners were selected by census (N=15, N=48, respectively). The data collection tool was a questionnaire and the data were analyzed by SPSS software package. The findings revealed that in wheat farms, soil preparation had the highest consumption of diesel by 49% and in corn farms inter culturing had the highest diesel consumption by 38%. Moreover, the amount of diesel consumed in 3600 ha wheat and a corn farm in Dire County was 403,852.6 lit/year equivalent to 15,346,399 MJ. Burning this amount of diesel produces about 1, 058,094 kg CO2/year. Overall, farm machinery, water pumping and irrigation for two major crops in the county are extremely reliant on nonrenewable fossil fuel resulting in large amount of CO2 emission.  Hence, an aggressive and innovative policy is required to restructure and redesign energy system in agriculture sector at national and local levels. Finally, it seems that paradigm shift to sustainable agriculture and development of clean and renewable energy in Iran's agricultural sector is unavoidable.


  • Iran energy use in agricultural production has become more intensive due to the use of fossil fuel, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, machinery and electricity to provide substantial increases
  • One of the most important strategies for tackling greenhouse gas emissions is the management of alternative clean energy supply in agriculture sector
  • The findings revealed that in wheat farms, soil preparation had the highest consumption of diesel by 49% and in corn farms inter culturing had the highest diesel consumption by 38%
  • In rural areas of Iran, given the huge potential of renewable resources as well as their capacity of job creation


Main Subjects

1- Agri-Food Country Profile, Statistical Overview - Iran. (2005). Canadian Embassy in Tehran

(CET): Tehran, Iran (2004). Available online: (accessed

on 15August 2005).

2-Asakereh, A., Shiekh Davoodi, M.J., & Akram, A. (2010). Investigation of energy consumption in agriculture sector of Iran and their effect on air pollution and social cost. Research Journal of Applied Sciences Engineering and Technology, 2(5), 401-406.

3- Bagherzadeh, A., & Amirtaimuri, S. (2009). Estimate the energy demand of the agricultural sector. Paper presented 7th National Conference on Energy. December 22 – 23, Tehran, Iran.

4- Banihashmi, S.A.R. (2009). Copenhagen Summit and its impact on agriculture. Environment and Sustainable Agricultural Development Department and Agricultural Research & Extension Organization. Climate Change and Agriculture tract, a review of the convention and meetings in climate change from Rio to Copenhagen. Agricultural Education publication. Tehran. February.

5- Barlett, J.E., Kotrlik, J.W., & Higgins, C.C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1), 43.

6- CAEEDAC (The Canadian Agricultural Energy End Use Data and Analysis Centre) (2000). Direct energy use in agriculture and the food sectors – Separation by Farm Type and Location. A Report to Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A S7N 5A

7- Canakci, M., Topakci, M., Akinci, I., & Ozmerzi, A. (2005). Energy use pattern of some field crops and vegetable production: Case study for Antalya Region, Turkey. Energy Conversion and Management, 46, 655-666.

8- Chel, K., & Kaushik, A. (2011). Renewable energy for sustainable agriculture. Agronomy for

Sustainable Development, 31 (1), 91-118.

9- Devi, R, SinghbVijender, R.P., & Dahiyaa Kumar, A. (2009). Energy consumption pattern of a decentralized community in northern Haryana. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 194–200.

10- Gopal, C., Mohanraj, M., Chandramohan, P., & Chandrasekar, P. (2013). Renewable energy source water pumping systems-A literature review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, 351–370.

11- Gustav, R., Anne, H., Thomas, F., Christian, P., Felipe, T., & Reinhard, H. (2008). Potentials and prospects for renewable energies at global scale. Energy Policy, 36, 4048–4056.

12- IEA (International Energy Agency). (2010). World energy outlook. Paris: OECD/IEA.

13- Iran's Hydrocarbon balance sheet (2007). (Available in Persian) Published by; Iran’s Energy Ministry, Secretariat of Energy and Electricity.

14- Irena, M., Vick, X., & Vick, B. (2011). United States department of agriculture office of the chief economist, office of energy policy, and new user. Solar energy use in us agriculture, overview and policy issues. Web_SolarEnergy_combined.pdf.

15- Jadidi, M., Sabuni, S., Homayounifar, M., & Mohammadi., A. (2012). Assessment of energy use pattern for tomato production in Iran: A case study from the Marand region. Research in Agricultural Engeneering, 58 (2), 50–56.

16- Keane, J., Page, S., Kergna, A., & Kennan, J. (2009). Climate Change and Developing Country Agriculture: An Overview of Expected Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Challenges, and Funding Requirement. Published by International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and International Envrionment House.

17- Khoshnevisan, B. S., Rafiee, M., Mousazadeh, H., & Rajaeifar. M.A. (2014). Application of artificial neural networks for prediction of output energy and GHG emissions in potato production in Iran. Agricultural Systems, 123,120-127.

18- Kotrlik, J. W. K. J. W., & Higgins, C. C. H. C. C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1), 43.

19- Lichtfouse, E., Navarrete, M., Debaeke, P., Souchere, V., Alberola, C., & Menassieu, J. (2009). Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 29(1), 1–11.

20- Moradi Tochaee, M., Azarpour, E., & Bozorgi, H. R. (2013). Investigation energy balance Indices by seed chemical compounds in corn production in north of Iran. Scholars Research Library Annals of Biological Research, 4 (5), 135-138.

21- Papzan, A.H., & Papzan, A. (2012). CO2 Emission Reduction by using Renewable Energy in

Iran: Towards Sustainable Development. Journal of American Science, 8(7), 427- 434.

22- Rajabi, M.H., Soltani, A., Vhidnia, B., Zeinali, E., & Soltani, E. (2012). Evaluation of fuel consumption in wheat fields in Gorgan. Environmental Sciences, 9 (2), 143-164.

23- ShabanaliFami, H., Ghasemi, J., Malekipoor, R., Rashidi, P., Nazari, S., & Mirzaee, A. (2010) Renewable energy use in Smallholders farming systems: A case study in Tafresh Township of Iran. Sustainability, 2, 702-716.

24- Soltanpanahi, S., Prakash Kammardi, T.N., & Ghaderzadeh, H. (2013). Analysis of input-output energy use in Sugar Beet production in Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 28 (9), 1252-1261.

25- SSNC (The Swedish Society for Nature Conservation). (1999). Policy for sustainable agriculture. Birger Gustafson AB: Stockholm, Sweden.

26- Valsecchi, C., Ten Brink, P., Bassi, S., Withana, S., & Lewis, M. (2009). Environmentally harmful subsidies: Identification and assessment. Final report for institute of European environmental policy.

27- Watch, G., & Action, C. (2013). Network Europe. Climate Change Performance Index.

28- Ziaabadi, M., Alavi, S.S., Zare Mehrjerdi, M.R., & Kermani, F. (2013). Forecast of energy consumption in agricultural sector of Iran using neural network. Inter Disciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research, January 4(9), 1042-1053.