Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Graduate student of Agricultural Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


The objective of the present study was to financially compare chemical and agricultural management methods of rice blast disease, as a prevalent disease in paddy fields of Langerood in Guilan Province, Iran. Thirty-three rice experts and 373 paddy farmers were selected by random sampling procedures. Data were collected by a research made questionnaire and were analyzed by SPSS. Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) was utilized for analysis to recognize the most efficient disease management method. Given the costs in 2012 and the evaluation of economic variables of chemical disease management procedures in paddy fields per acre, it became evident that agricultural disease management methods can replace the chemical ones financially. Furthermore, the comparison of farmers’ demographic, economic and agricultural characteristics by Chi-squared test among agronomic method and chemical method users showed no significant relationship between paddy farmers’ gender, age and farming experience, but there was a significant relationship between cultivation area and management method at the 0.05 significant level. However, there was a significant correlation between disease management methods and the size of the area under cultivation. Furthermore, there were significant differences between experts and farmers’ professional viewpoints in their preferences of disease management methods. While experts insist on an integrated application of chemical and agricultural procedures, most farmers apply chemical disease management methods.

Graphical Abstract

Financial Comparison of Management Methods of Rice Blast Disease in Langerood County, Iran


  • More than 80.3% of participants utilize chemical management methods for rice blast
  • There was a significant correlation between disease management methods and the size of the area under cultivation
  • While experts insist on an integrated application of chemical and agricultural procedures, most farmers apply chemical disease management methods


Main Subjects

  1. Allahyari, M.S. (2012). Extension of sustainable agriculture. Rasht, Islamic Azad University Press, pp. 1-48.
  2. Azeem Khan, M., Iqbal, M., Ahmad, I., & Soomro, M. H. (2002). Economic evaluation of pesticide use externalizations in the cotton zones of Punjab, Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 41(2), 683-698.
  3. El- Mougy, N. S., Abdel- Kader, M. M., & Lashin, S. M. (2013). Preliminary economic evaluation of fungicide alternatives approaches against root diseases incidence of some vegetables grown under protected cultivation system in Egypt. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, 3(6), 95- 103.
  4. Etejere, E. O., Olayinka, B. U., & Wuraola, A. J. (2013). Comparative economic efficacy of different weed control methods in Groundnut. European Journal of Biological Sciences, 7(1), 10- 18.
  5. Hassani Moghadam, M., Arjmandyan, A., Sohaily, B., & Azimi, H. (2012). Damage assessment and evaluation of different methods of combating Rhizoctonia disease of potatoes. Journal of Plant Protection Research Institute of Technology Research News, 2 (12), 14.
  6. Hassani Moghadam, M., Esco, T., Asadpoor, H., & Mohajer, A. R. (2007). Evaluation of the effectiveness of management agents on control of pests of Mazandaran Province. Paper presented at: Paper presented at 6th Conference of Agricultural Economics October, 30-31.  Mashhad, Iran.
  7. Javadpoor, S. (2013). Economic comparison with the control and prevention strategies for rice stem borer in the city of Rasht. Unpublished thesis agricultural management. Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch. 99 pp.
  8. Karimi, S. (2002). The principles of sustainable agricultural production methods. Monthly Jihad Journal, 22 (254), 40- 46.
  9. Najafi Khotbeh Sarraii, N. (2011). Evaluation of the role of rice in the economic situation Guilan farmer’s observers. Unpublished thesis agricultural economics, Guilan University. pp. 17- 31.
  10. Okhovat, M., Sharify Tehrani, A.,& Eshtiaghi, H. (1990). Studying the effects of blast disease on the amount of rice production. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(1 & 2), 17-25.
  11. Padasht-Dehkaiey, F. (1999). Effects of nitrogen and silica on rice blast disease, Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 30(4), 736-742.
  12. Pajuhandeh, M. (2013). Economic evaluation of harvesting rice methods in Guilan Province. Unpublished thesis agricultural management. Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch. 53pp.
  13. Peterson, L. G. (1990). Tricyclazole for control of Pyricularia oryzae on rice: The relationship of the mode of action and disease occurrence and development. Pest Management in Rice. Springer Netherlands, pp.122-130.
  14. Safi- Yari, H., Shirzadi- Far, A., & Shojaii Arani, J. (2011). Economic evaluation system with variable rate applied herbicides used in corn fields. Paper presented at:  First National Conference on Agricultural Mechanization and New Technologies February, 17-19, Ahvaz, Iran.
  15. Shaymala, I., & Sivakumaar, P. K. (2012). Research article Pseudomonas fluorescens mediate disease resistance in rice against rice blast caused by Pyricularia oryzae. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 3(10), 853-857.
  16. Soleimanipoor, A., Bagheri, S., & Safe, H. R. (2010). Economic evaluation and comparison of different methods of irrigation and planting the potato varieties. February, 3-4, 2011. Paper presented at 7th Conference of Agricultural Economics. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University, Iran.
  17. Sydorovych, O., Safley, CH. D., Ferguson, L. M., Poling, E. B., Fernandez, G. E., Brannen, Ph. M., Monks, D. M., & Louws, F. J. (2006). Economic evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives for production of strawberries in the southeastern United States. American Society for Horticultural Science. 16(1), 118- 128.
  18. Tebeest, D. O., Guerber, C., & Ditmore, M. (2007). Rice blast. Journal of Plant Disease, 10(2), 109-113.
  19. Yusefnia Pasha, H., Tabatabai Kolwer, R., & Hashemi, J. (2012). Comparison of different methods of weed control in rice production costs. September, 5-6, 2012. Paper presented at 7th National Conference on Agricultural Machinery Engineering and Mechanization. Shiraz University, Iran.
  20. Zare, A, Amin, B., & Boustany Far, M. (2007). Comparison of technical and economic control of chemical and biological cotton whitefly on cotton fields in Fars province. Journal of Agriculture, 30(3), 15-28.