Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Agricultural Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Agronomy, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


Increased cost of tobacco cultivation is a major concern for its sustainable production in Iran. Therefore, the development of tobacco mechanized cultivation is a necessity. Given this, the driving and inhibiting factors of the development of mechanized tobacco cultivation were investigated by the Delphi technique in three rounds in Guilan Province, Iran. Nineteen experts from the Jahad Agriculture Organization of Guilan Province and the Agriculture Management Services in Rasht County and Western Guilan were selected as the research panel as recommended by the academic professors of the Guilan Province. The results were analyzed by SPSS21. In the last round, 10 superior driving and inhibiting factors were ranked based on the final experts’ consistency as the final decision. The results revealed that identification of pioneer farmers and their encouragement to mechanized tobacco cultivation and the import of the latest technologies of tobacco cultivation and their modification in accordance with regional conditions were the most important driving factors as 97.37 and 94.74% of panel experts agreed, respectively. In addition, 98.68% of experts rated insufficient research on tobacco cultivation mechanization and 96.05% of experts rated the small size of tobacco farms as the most important inhibiting factors. Accordingly, the development of supportive policies to support pioneer tobacco growers in mechanized cultivation of this industrial crop, the technical assessment for modern tobacco cultivation machinery, the reduction of imported tobacco machinery prices, and the support of research on mechanization of tobacco cultivation are some important strategies that should be considered by those involved in tobacco production in Guilan Province, Iran. 

Graphical Abstract

The Driving and Inhibiting Factors of Mechanized Tobacco Production in Iran Using the Delphi Technique


The factors of mechanized tobacco cultivation in Iran were studied using the Delphi technique.

Supporting the pioneer tobacco farmers was identified as the most important driver.

Insufficient research on tobacco mechanization was identified as the most important barrier. 


Main Subjects

Abedi, H., Firouzi, S., & Allahyari, M.S. (2017). Analysis of factors affecting the development of mechanical olive harvest in Guilan Province.  Journal of Farm Machinery, 7(1), DOI: 10.22067/jam.v7i1.48003 (In Press).
Almassi, M., Loveimi, N., & Kiani, S. (2006). Farm machinery management (1sted), Mashhad : Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, Iran (In Persian).
Guilan’s Organization of Jihad Agriculture (2013). Annual statistics of agriculture. Guilan: Department of Planning and Economy, Center of Information and Communication Technology (In Persian).
Balachandran, P.G. (2003). Constraints on diffusion and adoption of agro-mechanical technology in rice cultivation in Kerala, Retrieved from
Baladji, U., & Aghapour Sabbaghi, M. (2015). Investigating the reasons for non-acceptance of new machines by wheat growers in Andica County. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 2 (1), 62-66.
Capareda, S.C., de Ramos, J.D., del Rosario, A.C., & Castro, S.G. (2002). Mechanization of small to medium scale corn production areas in the Philippines. In: Implementation strategy manual. Agricultural Mechanization Development Program (AMDP), Institute of Agricultural Engineering, College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology, University of the Philippines Los Banos, Philippines.
Capehart, T. (2004). Trends in U.S. tobacco farming (TBS-257-02). USDA, United States Department of Agriculture, Electronic Outlook Report from the Economic Research Service, Retrieved from webdocs/ publications/tbs25702/48597_tbs25702.pdf
Chi, T.T.N. (2010). Factors affecting mechanization in rice harvesting and drying in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam. Omonrice, 17, 164-173.
Clarke, L.J., Morrison, T.A., Juricek, J., & Studenik, B. (1993). The Slovak Republic: Agricultural mechanization strategy, a review. Retrieved January 21, 2007, from
Conner, N., & Grady, R. (2013) Competencies and experiences needed by pre–service agricultural educators to teach globalized curricula: A modified Delphi study. Journal of Agricultural Education, 54(1), 8-17. DOI: 10.5032/jae. 2013.01008
Dunham, R. B. (1996). The Delphi technique. Retrieved from: http://www.medsch. orgbehav/delphi.pdf
Firouzi, S. (2015). A survey on the current status of mechanization of paddy cultivation in Iran: Case of Guilan Province. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, 5(2), 117-124.
Ghosh, B. K. (2010). Determinants of farm mechanization in modern agriculture: A case study of Burdwan districts of West Bengal. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(12), 1107-1115.
Heiko, A. (2012). Consensus measurement in Delphi studies: Review and implications for future quality assurance. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79 (8), 1525-1536.
Julius, A. (2014). Factors limiting small-scale farmers’ access and use of tractors for agricultural mechanization in Abuja, North Central Zone, Nigeria. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 3(1), 115-124.
Keeney, S., Hasson, F., & McKenna, H.P. (2001). A critical review of the Delphi Technique as a research methodology for nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38(2), 195-200.
Kutte, M.T., & Tya, T.S.K. (2001). Mechanization strategies for sustainable agricultural production in Nigeria. Proceedings of NIAE, 23, 27 - 33.
Lamidi, W.A., & Akande, L.O. (2013). A Study of status, challenges and prospects of agricultural mechanization in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Education, Arts and Humanities, 1(1), 1-8. Retrieved from https:// www .watchpub/ jeah/index.htm.
Mohammadi, O., & Zarifian, Sh. (2008). Factors affecting the mechanization of agricultural lands (Case city of Nishapur). 5th National Conference on Agricultural Machinery Engineering and Mechanization. Mashhad, Iran, September 2008, pp, 9.
Namvar Rezaei, A. (2008). Promotional mechanization tract in tobacco cultivation. Iranian Tobacco Company, Iran, Tehran (In Persian).
Ou, Y., Yang, D., Yu, P., Wang, Y., Li, B., & Zhang, Y. (2002). Experience and analysis on sugarcane mechanization at a state farm in China. 2002 ASAE Annual International Meeting/ CIGR 15th World Congress Sponsored by ASAE CIGR, Hyatt Regency Chicago, Illinois, USA July 28- 31.
Pishbin, S.,Mohamadi, H., & Ejraei A. (2007). Problems of agricultural mechanization in Jahrom Region. Development and Productivity, 5, 17-29 (In Persian).
Rasouli, F., Sadighi, H., & Minaei, S. (2010). Factors affecting agricultural mechanization: A case study on sunflower seed farms in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science Technology, 11, 39-48.
Salokhe, V.M., & Oida, A. (2003). Development of appropriate agricultural machinery for Southeast Asian Countries. Laboratory of Agricultural Systems Engineering. Retrieved 16 April 2005 from
Zamani, P. (2010). Cultivation and processing of tobacco (1th ed.).Iran: Beh-andishan.
Zehtab Naebi, R., Firouzi, S., & Ebrahimzadeh, M.R. (2015). Promoters and deterrents of developing mechanization of peanut cultivation in North of Iran. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, 5(1), 1-8.