Document Type : Original Article


Ministry of Trade and Industry, Ghana


The present study examined the perception of smallholder pineapple farmers on Global GAP standard compliance, assessed compliant farmers’ rate of adherence to standard requirements, and compared the average farm profit of Global GAP compliant and non-compliant pineapple farmers in Akuapem South Municipal Area of Ghana. The study used mainly farm level data solicited from 150 randomly selected pineapple farmers. Findings of the study indicated that compliant farmers perceived Global GAP to offer market premium on certified products as it is the case for organic certification. Factors that accounted for farmer non-compliance with Global GAP included: high cost of standard compliance, uncompetitive farm gate price and low farm yield.  Although average farm profit of Global GAP compliant farmer (GH¢9,083.64) was higher than that of non-compliant farmer (GH¢8,893.62), the difference was insignificant. The study recommended, among others, that a concerted attempt should be made by the Government of Ghana and the private sector to create a national commodity exchange institution that will seek to provide a transparent and efficient marketing system for Ghana’s key agricultural commodities.

Graphical Abstract

Global GAP Standard Compliance and Profitability: A Case Study of Smallholder Pineapple Farmers in Akuapem South of Ghana


Smallholder farmers’ compliance with Global GAP Standard increased market access of fresh pineapple. However, this could not translate to appreciable farm profit. High cost of standard compliance coupled with low farm yield and uncompetitive farm gate price contributed to the abysmal performance of compliant farmers’ profitability.


Main Subjects

Afari-Sefa, V. (2010).Horticultural exports and livelihood linkages of rural dwellers in southern Ghana: An agricultural household modeling application. The Journal of Developing Areas, 44(1), 1-23.
Anderson, K., Cockburn, J., & Martin, W. (Eds) (2010).Agricultural Price Distortions, Inequality, and Poverty.World Bank, Washington, DC.
Annor, B. P., Mensah-Bonsu, A., & Jatoe, J. B. D. (2016). Compliance with GlobalGAP standards among smallholder pineapple farmers in Akuapem-South, Ghana. Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, 6(1), 21-38
Asfaw, S., Mithofer, D., &Waibel, H. (2008). Food-safety standards: A catalyst for the winners –a barrier for the losers? The case of GlobalGAP on horticultural export from Kenya. The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.
Banson, E. (2007). Effects of innovations on the production and marketing of fresh pineapples for export in Ghana, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, BNARI, Legon, Accra.
Eurostat (2013). Eurostat international trade data. EU Fruit Import from Ghana (2000 - 2013). (Eurostat is the Official Statistical Office of the European Union). Retrieved from
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2010). Private food safety standards: Their role in food safety regulation and their impact.Paper prepared by Renata Clarke for presentation and discussion at the 33rd Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, FAO 00153 Rome, Italy.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), &World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Publication (2001). Assuring food safety and quality: Guidelines for strengthening national food control systems. FAO and Food Nutriotion Paper 76, ISSN 0054-4725 Rome, Italy.
Ghana export promotion council (GEPC) (2012).  Non-Traditional Exports Statistics-2011. Accra, Ghana.
Ghana Living Standards Survey Fifth Round (GLSS) (2009). Ghana Statistical Service. Retrieved from
Ghana Statistical Service. (2010). Ghana Statistical Service.  New Series of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Estimates, 1–5 Retrieved from .
GLOBAL GAP (2011). Global working group for good agricultural practice, control points and criteria, integrated farm assurance; fruits and vegetable regulations, GLOBALGAP c/o Food PLUS GmbH, Cologne,  1-15,
Graffham, A., Karehu, E., &MacGregor, J. (2007). Impact of Eurep GAP on small-scale vegetable growers in Kenya, Fresh Insights No. 6, Natural Resources Institute, Kent, Retrieved from
Hobbs, J.E. (2010). Public and private standards for food safety and quality: International trade implications.Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, 11 (1), 136-152.
Institute of Social Statistical and Economic Research (ISSER) (2010). The state of the Ghanaian economy in 2009.University of Ghana, Legon, Accra.
Voisard, J.M. & Jaeger, P., (2003). Regional study on agricultural trade facilitation/export promotion in SSA; Ghana Horticulture Sector Development Study, including Agricultural Sub-Sector Investment Program Restructuring. ESSD Department of the World Bank. Retrieved from:
Kasalu-Coffin, E., Bedinger, T., & Dosso, H. (2005). Export marketing and quality awareness project, appraisal report. African Development Fund, Tunis, pp. 35-40.
Kleemann, L. (2011).Organic pineapple farming in Ghana – a good choice for smallholders? Working Paper (No. 1671), Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Kiel, Germany
Kuwornu, J. K. M., & Mustapha, S. (2013). Global GAP standard compliance and smallholder pineapple farmers’access to export markets: Implications for incomes. Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 5(2), 69-81.
Mausch, K., Dagmar, M.D., Asfaw, S., &Waibel, H. (2006). Impact of Eurep Gap standards in Kenya: Comparing smallholder to large-scale vegetable producers. Paper presented at the Conference on IARD, University of Bonn, Germany.
Mensah, A., & Brummer, B. (2016). Drivers of technical efficiency and technology gaps in Ghana’s mango production sector: A stochastic metafrontier approach. African Journal of Agricultural Economics, 11(2), -101-117.
Market Oriented Agricultural Programme (2009).Program progress report 2009 in collaboration with MoFA and GTZ. Market Oriented Agriculture Program, Accra, Ghana.
Ministry of Food and Agriculture (2011).Year 2010 facts and figures on pineapple production. Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Akuapem South Municipal Directorate of Agriculture, Nsawam.
Mosquera, M., Evans, E., & Spreen, T. (2012). Assessing the potential impact of strengthening food safety regulations on developing countries: The US food safety and modernization act. Selected paper prepared for the presentation on the Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting (February 4-7), Birmingham, AL.
Muriithi, B.W. (2008).Compliance with EUREPGAP standards: Determinants, costs and implications on profitability among smallholder French beans exporters in Kirinyaga District, Kenya.Unpublished thesisin Agriculture and Applied Economics, Egerton University, Kenya, pp. 15-45.
Patriccione, G., dell’Aquila, C., Perito, A.M., Cioffi, A., & Garcia-Alvarez-Coque, J.M. (2011). EU fruit and vegetable sector: Overview and post 2013 CAP perspective. Directorate-General for Internal policyPolicy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies, European Parliament, Brussels, Retrieved from:
Rausser, G.C., &de Gorter, H. (2013).Agricultural commodity price fluctuations, 2006-2012.In Pinstrup-Andersen P. (Ed.), Political Economy of Food Price Policy, Oxford University Press, Oxford UK.
Sefa-Dedeh, S. (2005). Ghana private-public partnership food industry development program. Final Report for USAID Associate Cooperative Agreement No. 641-A-00-03-0003, Accra, pp. 75-105.
Tyers, R., & Anderson, K. (1992).Disarray in World Food Markets: A Quantitative Assessment.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, NY.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development -(2008). Implications for exports of fruit and vegetables from Sub-Saharan Africa: Experiences of Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda.UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2007/13, UN, New York, NY.