Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD of Agricultural Extension and Education, Tarbiat Modares University,Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran


The purpose of this study was to identify factors which affect rural women's participation in rice cultivation (RWPRC) in Mazandaran Province, Iran. The population of this research consisted of all rural women in Mazandaran Province, Iran. By using a multi-stage random sampling, 300 rural women were selected as statistical sample. The research instrument was a structured questionnaire including some close-ended questions whose validity and reliability were confirmed by a panel of expert and through a Cranach’s alpha test (α= 0.86), respectively. The descriptive results indicated that RWPRC was close to a moderate level.  Furthermore, it was shown that the main reasons for rural women's participating in rice cultivation were helping family economy, obtaining extra income, and gaining production surplus, in the order of importance. In addition, these results illustrated the highest RWPRCs were in selecting seed, transplanting and Preparing pre-germinated seedling storage, respectively. Moreover, the findings showed significant relationships between RWPRC and some of its individual and professional characteristics. Finally, the results of the multivariate regression analysis revealed that 42.9 % of variability in RWPRC stems from household income, family size, and land size under rice cultivation. Finally, it is recommended for extension organizations to give attention to the role of gender in agriculture for better extension planning. 

Graphical Abstract

Effective Factors on the Participation of Mazandaran Province Rural Women in Rice Cultivation


The main reasons for rural women's participating in rice cultivation were helping family economy, obtaining extra income, and gaining production surplus,

The highest rural women's participating in rice cultivation were in selecting seed, transplanting and Preparing pre-germinated seedling storage, respectively.

Household income, family size, and land size affects the participation of rural women in rice cultivation


Main Subjects

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