Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Candidate in Agricultural Development, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Rural Development Management, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran


Sustainable Livelihoods Approach emerged in the 1980s as a new analytical approach in the field of rural development in
which the rural livelihood capitals form the basis of the villagers' empowerment and their ability to get involved in their own individual and social destiny. This study aimed to answer the question that how much the importance of each type of livelihood capitals is in the Central District of Dena County in an attempt to improve rural development interventions. The statistical population of the study consisted of local experts of Central District of Dena County that involved village managers and village council members out of which 15 individuals were purposefully selected based on their accessibility. Data were collected through a questionnaire which was developed to conduct pairwise comparisons of livelihood capitals according to the ANP method. Super Decisions software was used in order to rank livelihood capitals and their sub-indexes. The results showed that from among the five types of capital, physical capital was at the first priority. In addition, human, natural and social capitals were at the second, third and fourth priorities, respectively. Finally, financial capital was in the last priority. Therefore, in planning and investing to achieve sustainable livelihood in rural areas, physical and human capital should be taken into consideration more than any other capitals. 

Graphical Abstract

Ranking Rural Livelihood Capitals in the Central District of Dena county: the Application of Analytic Network Process (ANP)


Main Subjects

Abdollahzadeh, Gh., Salehi, Kh., Sharifzadeh, M. Sh., Khajehshahko, A. (2016). Investigating the impact of tourism on sustainable rural livelihoods in Golestan Province. Planning and Tourism Development, 4(15), 148-169.
Ansari Arjmand, M., Hosseini S.M., Kavyanpoor, G. (2016). Measurement of social capital in the Neighborhoods of Mashhad City (Case study of Neighborhoods of Region 3). Socio-cultural Studies on Khorasan, 10(3), 7-30.
Barimani, F., Rasti, H., Raesi, I. & Mohammad Zadeh, Masoud. (2016). Analyzing geographic factors affecting the livelihoods of households in the rural settlements case study: Qasr-e Qand County. Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement, 6(18), 85-96.
Bhandari, P. B. (2013). Rural livelihood change? Household capital, community resources and livelihood transition. Journal of Rural Studies, 32, 126-136.
Chambers, R. (1995) Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? Environment and Urbanization, 7(1), 173-204.
Detel, W. (2008). On the concept of basic social norms. Analyse & Kritik, 30, 469–482.
Fang, Y., Fan, J., Shen, M., & Song, M. (2014). Sensitivity of livelihood strategy to livelihood capital in mountain areas: Empirical analysis based on different settlements in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River, China. Ecological Indicators, 38, 225– 235.
Faraji Sabokbar, H., Badri, S. A., Motiei Langrodi, S. H., & Sharafi, H. (2010). Measuring the sustainability of rural areas using analytical network process (ANP) Case-study: Rural areas of Fasa County. Human Geography Research Quarterly, 42(72), 135-156.
Ghadirimasoum, M., Rezvani, M., Jomepuor, M., & Baghyani, H. (2015). Leveling living in rural mountain tourism capital Case: High Taloqan district in the city of Taloqan. Spatial Economic and Rural Development, 4(12), 1-18.
Ghafari, G., & Paluj, M. (2013). The study relation between social, human and physical capital with value crops and livestock in sector rural Isfahan. Agricultural Economic and Development, 20(79), 187-210.
Ghanbari, H., & Roostaei, S. (2014). Evaluation priorities in planning and spatial planning of border areas in East Azarbaijan using network analysis process (ANP). Town and Country Planning, 5(2), 335-360.
Ghorbani, M., Evazpour, L., & Khorasani, M. A. (2015). Analysis and Assessment of social capital in small development networks towards local sustainable development (Case study: International RFLDL project - Sarayan Township, South Khorasan, Iran). Journal of Rural Research, 6(3), 545-566.
Goodwin, N. R. (2003). Five kinds of capital: Useful concepts for sustainable development, G-DAE Working Paper No. 03-07
Hayatgheibi, F., & Karbassi, A. (2013). Using the analytic network process in prioritizing the strategies affecting success of agricultural insurance fund: A case study of Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiyari Province. Journal of Village and Development, 16(3), 59-82.
Horsley, J., Prout, S., Tonts, Matthew, & Ali, S. H. (2015). Sustainable livelihoods and indicators for regional development in mining economies. The Extractive Industries and Society, 2(2), 368-380.
Huttunen, S. (2012). Wood energy production, sustainable farming livelihood and multifunctionality in Finland. Journal of Rural Studies, 28(4), 549-558.
Jomehpour, M., & Ahmadi, Sh. (2011).  Effect of tourism on sustainable rural livelihoods (Case study: Baraghan village-Savojbolagh County). Journal of Rural Research, 2(1), 33-66.
Karami, A., & Abdshahi, A. (2012). Ranking of townships in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad Province in terms of development using fuzzy approach. Journal of Agricultural Economics Researches, 3(3), 117-136.
Khayyati, M., & Aazami, M. (2016). Drought impact assessment on rural livelihood systems in Iran. Ecological Indicators, 69, 850–858.
Liu, Y., & Xu, Y. (2016) A geographic identification of multidimensional poverty in rural China under the framework of sustainable livelihoods analysis. Applied Geography, 73, 62-76.
Mahmodi, S., Roknoddin Eftekhari, A., Ghaffari, G., & Portaheri, M. (2016). Explore the effects of development funds on social capital: the villages of Khorasan Razavi. Spatial Economic and Rural Development, 4(14), 169-190.
Manzoor, D., & Yadipoor, M. (2009). Social capital as social and economic development factor. Yas Strategy, 15, 140-162.
Mitra, A. (2008). Social capital, livelihood and upward mobility. Habitat International, 32(2), 261–269.
Motiee Langroodi, S.H., Ghadiri Masuom, M., Rezvani, M. R., Nazari, A.H. & Sahneh, B. (2012). Effect of return migrants to rural residents in improving livelihoods: (The case study: Township of Aq Qala). Human Geography Research Quarterly, 43(78), 67-83.
Naderi Mahdei, K., Fotros, M. H., & Esfahani, S.M.J. (2015). Investigation relationship between social capital and efficiency (Case study: saffron producers of Ferdows County). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 4(2), 21-34.
Nikkhah, H. A., Zhairinia, M., Sadeghi, S., & Fani, M. (2014). The study of social capital and its impact on social participation: Bandar Abbas, Iran. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(23), 1712-1721.
Nourozi, M., & Hayati, D. (2015). Factors affecting sustainable rural livelihoods as perceived by farmers in Kermanshah Province. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Journal, 11(1), 127-144.
Omrani, M., & Farajzadeh, Z. (2016). Capital role in Iranian agriculture growth. Journal of Agricultural Economics Research, 7(4), 1-19.
Paul, B. G., & Vogl, C. R. (2013). Organic shrimp aquaculture for sustainable household livelihoods in Bangladesh. Ocean & Coastal Management, 71, 1-12.
Rangzan, K., Saberi, A., & Bakhteyary, M. (2015). Positioning wood industry units in Khuzestan Province by sing analytic network process (ANP) in GIS environment. Journal of Zonal Planning, 5(17), 45-58.
Roknedin Eftekhari, A., Moosavi, S. M., Poortaheri, M., & Farajzadeh Asl, M. (2014). Analysis of the role of livelihood diversity to rural household resilience in drought condition: case study of the drought exposed areas of Isfahan Province. Journal of Rural Research, 5(3), 639-662.
Sadeghi Ravesh, M. H., & Khosravi, H. (2015). Application of network analysis process (ANP) in assessment of combating desertification alternatives. Desert Ecosystem Engineering Journal, 4(8), 11-24.
Salmani, M, Rezvani, M. R., Pourtaheri, M., & Veisi, F. (2011). Effects of seasonal labor migration on rural household livelihood (Case study: Sarvabad County-Kurdestan province). Human Geography Research Quarterly, 43(77), 111-127.
Sharbatiyan, M. H., Bokharaei, A., & Tavafi, P. (2015). The study of social capital in rural development (Case study: Village of AsadAbad city Torbat-Heidriyeh). Journal of Human Geography, 7(4), 139-163.
Sojasi Ghidari, H., Sadeqlu, T., & Shakourifard, E. (2016). Measuring the livelihood properties in rural areas using a sustainable livelihood approach (Case study: rural areas of Taybad County). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 5(1), 197-215.
Su, F., & Shang, H. Y. (2012). Relationship analysis between livelihood assets and livelihood strategies: A Heihe River Basin example. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 4(3), 265–274.
Tang, Q., Bennett S. J., Xu, Y., & Li, Y. (2013). Agricultural practices and sustainable livelihoods: Rural transformation within the Loess Plateau, China. Applied Geography, 41, 15-23.
Thulstrup, A. W. (2015). Livelihood resilience and adaptive capacity: Tracing changes in household access to capital in central Vietnam. World Development, 74, 352–362.
Udayakumara, E.P.N., & Shrestha, R.P. (2011). Assessing livelihood for improvement: Samanalawewa reservoir environs, Sri Lanka. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 18(4), 366-376.
Wang, C., Zhang, Y., Yang, Y., Yang, Q., Kush, J., Xu, Y., & Linglin, X. (2016). Assessment of sustainable livelihoods of different farmers in hilly red soil erosion areas of southern China. Ecological Indicators, 64, 123-131.