Document Type : Review Article


Centre for Development Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)


Innovation is a complex phenomenon and process involving translation of knowledge into new techniques, products, services. It is considered crucial for sustainable agriculture development and achievement of long-term food security. The review describes the diversity of innovation and relates it to agro-food sector. It also sheds light on different innovation models and explores their contribution to framing agro-food sustainability transitions. There are many variations in the use of the term ‘innovation’. Typical distinctions encountered in the literature are incremental vs. radical innovation and product vs. process vs. organizational innovation. A significant feature of the development of modern innovation thinking has been a gradual broadening of innovation scope as well as more attention to sustainability. The scope of innovation was broadened to include soft (social/organisation) innovations besides hard/technical ones. In fact, the interest has shifted from technological innovation to disruptive niche innovations fundamental for socio-technical transitions. Moreover, as a recognition of system complexity, frameworks such as the Innovation systems and the Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) were developed and promoted. However, despite positive innovation benefits, relationship between innovation and sustainability in the agro-food arena is far from straightforward. Therefore, focus is gradually moving from innovation process to its impacts in terms of sustainability and its contribution to sustainability transitions in agriculture and food systems.


Main Subjects

Alkemade F., Hekkert M.P. and Negro S.O. 2011. Transition policy and innovation policy: friends or foes? Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 1(1): 125–129.
Anderson P. and Tushman M 1990. Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: a cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly 35, 604–633.
ARC2020 and Friends of the Earth Europe. 2015. Transitioning Towards Agroecology: Using the CAP to build new food systems. Agricultural and Rural Convention (ARC2020), Berlin. (accessed May 21, 2017).
Argyris C. and Schon D. 1978. Organizational Learning: A theory of action perspective. Addison-Wesley, Reading (MA).
Arrow K. 1962. The economic implications of learning by doing. Review of Economic Studies, 29:155-173.
Arthur D. Little. 2005. How Leading Companies are Using Sustainability-Driven Innovation to Win Tomorrow’s Customers. Arthur D. Little Innovation High Ground Report. (accessed May 22, 2017).
Avermaete T., Viaene J., Morgan E.J., Pitts E., Crawford N. and Mahon D. 2004. Determinants of product and process innovation in small food manufacturing firms. Trends in Food Science & Technology 15(10): 474-483.
Avolio G., Blasi E., Cicatiello C. and Franco S. 2014. The drivers of innovation diffusion in agriculture: evidence from Italian census data. Journal on Chain and Network Science 14(3): 231-245. DOI: 10.3920/JCNS2014.x009
Baldwin E. and Curley M. 2007. Managing IT innovation for business value. IT best practice series. Intel Press, Santa Clara.
Basu S. and Leeuwis C. 2012. Understanding the rapid spread of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Andhra Pradesh: Exploring the building of support networks and media representation. Agricultural Systems 111: 34–44.
Batie S.S. 2008. Wicked problems and applied economics. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 90(5): 1176–1191.
Batterink M. H., Wubben E.F.M. and Omta S.W.F. 2006. Factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry. Journal on Chain and Network Science 6(1): 31-44.
Bayona C., Cruz C., Garcia T., Sanchez M. 2013. The effects of open innovation practices of Spanish agri-food firms on the innovation performance. In, Martínez, G. (ed.), Open innovation in the food and beverage Industry. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, London. pp. 74-94.
Bell M. 2012. International technology transfer, innovation capabilities and sustainable directions of development. In, Ockwell D.G. and Mallet A. (Eds.), Low-carbon Technology Transfer: From Rhetoric to Reality. Routledge, New York.
Bergek A., Jacobsson S., Carlsson B., Lindmark S. and Rickne A. 2008. Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis. Research Policy 37(3): 407–29.
Berkhout F. 2002. Technological regimes, path dependency and the environment. Global Environmental Change 12(1): 1–4.
Bessau D. and Lenk T. 1999. Innovationsökonomik: Ansätze der Innovationstheorie und der Innovationsforschung. Working Paper 8, ECOVIN-Work Report 4, University of Leipzig, Institute for Finance, Leipzig.
Biggs S. 2007. Building on the positive: an actor innovation systems approach to finding and promoting pro poor natural resources institutional and technical innovations. International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology 6: 144–164.
Brand R.G. 2003. Co-evolution toward sustainable development: Neither smart technologies nor heroic choices. Ph.D. thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas.
Carlsson B. and Stankiewicz R.1991. On the nature, function and composition of technological systems. Journal of Evolutionary Economics 1: 93–118.
Chambers R. 2005. Ideas for development. Earthscan, London.
Christensen C. 1997. The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (MA).
Clark N. 2002. Innovation systems, institutional change and the new knowledge market: Implications for third world agricultural development. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 11: 353–368.
Collinson M. 2000. Introduction. In, Collinson M. (Ed.), A history of farming systems research. FAO and CABI Publishing, Rome.
Cooke P. 2001. Regional innovation systems, clusters, and the knowledge economy. Industrial and Corporate Change 10(4): 945-974.
Cooke P. and Uranga G. 1997. Regional innovation systems: Institutional and organisational dimensions. Research Policy 26(5): 475–91.
Darnhofer I. 2015. Socio-technical transitions in farming: key concepts. In: Sutherland L.-A., Darnhofer I., Wilson G. and Zagata L. eds. Transition pathways towards sustainability in agriculture. Case studies from Europe. Wallingford: CABI; pp. 17-31.
Darnhofer I., Gibbon D., Dedieu B. 2012. Farming systems research: An approach to inquiry. In, Darnhofer I., Gibbon D., Dedieu B. (Eds.), Farming systems research into the 21st century: The new dynamic. Springer, Heidelberg. pp. 3–31.
Dewar R.D. and Dutton J.E. 1986. The Adoption of Radical and Incremental Innovations: An Empirical Analysis. Management Science 32(11): 1422–1433.
Dolata U. 2011. Radical change as gradual transformation: Characteristics and variants of socio-technical transitions. SOI Discussion paper 2011:03, University of Stuttgart.
EC 2016. European Research and Innovation for Food and Nutrition Security. Commission Staff Working Document; SWD(2016) 319 final. Brussels.
Eherer T. 1994. Erfolgreiche Produktinnovation. Graz.
EIP-AGRI 2013. Strategic Implementation Plan: European Innovation Partnership - Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability (EIP-A). Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. (accessed April 13, 2017).
Ekboir J. 2012. How to build innovation networks: Thematic note 2. In, World Bank (Ed.), Agricultural innovation systems: An investment sourcebook. World Bank, Washington DC. pp. 44–51.
Ekboir J. M. 2003. Research and technology policies in innovation systems: Zero tillage in Brazil. Research Policy 32: 573–586.
El Bilali H. and Probst L. (2017). Towards an integrated analytical framework to map sustainability transitions in food systems. International journal AgroFor 2(2): 24-32. DOI: 10.7251/AGRENG1702024B
EPSC 2016. Sustainability Now! A European Vision for Sustainability. EPSC Strategic Notes, Issue 18, 20 July 2016. European Political Strategy Centre (EPSC). (accessed May 4, 2017).
Falcone P. M. 2014. Sustainability Transitions: A Survey of an Emerging Field of Research. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development 3(2): 61-83.
FAO 2000. Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems for Rural Development. Strategic Vision and Guiding Principles. Rome.
FAO 2017. The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges. Rome.
FAO 2012. Greening the Economy with Agriculture. (accessed May 9, 2017).
FAO 2013. Climate­-Smart Agriculture Sourcebook. (accessed May 14, 2017).
FAO and INRA 2016. Innovative markets for sustainable agriculture – How innovations in market institutions encourage sustainable agriculture in developing countries. Loconto, A., Poisot, A.S. and Santacoloma, P. (Eds.). Rome.
Foran T., Williams J.R.A., Butler L.J., Wanjura W.J., Hall A., Carter L., Carberry P.S. 2014. Taking Complexity in Food Systems Seriously: An Interdisciplinary Analysis. World Development 61: 85–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.03.023
Fortuin F.T.J.M. and Omta S.W.F. 2009. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing. British Food Journal 111(8): 839-851.
Foxon T. 2008. A co-evolutionary framework for analysing transition pathways to a low carbon economy. Paper presented at the European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy 2008 Conference, 6–8 November 2008, Rome.
Foxon T., Köhler J., Michie J. and Oughton C. 2013. Towards a new complexity economics for sustainability. Cambridge Journal of Economics 37: 187–208.
Frederick E. and Webster J. 1969. New Product Adoption in Industrial Markets: A Framework for Analysis.  Journal of Marketing 33(3): 35-39. DOI: 10.2307/1248478
Freeman C. 1988. Japan: a new national system of innovation. In: Dosi G., Freeman C., Nelson R., Silverberg G., Soete L. eds., Technical Change and Economic Theory. Pinter, London; pp. 330–348.
Freeman C. 1995. The ‘National Systems of Innovation’ in historical perspective. Cambridge Journal of Economics 19, 5–24.
Freeman C. and Perez C. 1988. Structural crises of adjustment, business cycles and investment behaviour. In: Dosi G., Freeman C., Nelson R., Silverberg G., Soete L.L. (Eds.), Technical Change and Economic Theory. Pinter, London. pp. 38-66.
Garcia Martinez M. and Burns J. 1999. Sources of technological development in the Spanish food and drink industry. A ‘supplier-dominated’ industry? Agribusiness 15(4): 431-448.
Garcia R. and Calantone R. 2002. A critical look at technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: a literature review. Journal of Product Innovation Management 19: 110–132.
Gaziulusoy A.I. 2010. System Innovation for Sustainability: A Scenario Method and a Workshop Process for Product Development Teams. PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland.
Geels F.W. 2005. Technological Transitions and System Innovations: A Co- evolutionary and Socio-Technical Analysis. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
Geels F.W. 2006. Co-evolutionary and multi-level dynamics in transitions: the transformation of aviation systems and the shift from propeller to turbojet (1930–1970). Technovation 26, 999–1016.
Geels F.W. 2010. Ontologies, socio-technical transitions (to sustainability), and the multi-level perspective. Research Policy 39(4), 495–510.
Geels F.W. 2011. The multi-level perspective on sustainability transitions: responses to seven criticisms. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 1(1): 24–40.
Global Harvest Initiative 2016. Productivity and Innovation: Sustainable Agricultural Growth in an Uncertain Season. 2016 GAP Report. and Innovation.pdf (accessed May 13, 2017).
Goodman D., DuPuis M. and Goodman M. 2012. Alternative Food Networks. Knowledge, Practice and Politics. Routledge: London, UK.
Grunert K.G., Harmsen H., Meulenberg M., Kuiper E., Ottowitz T., Declerck F., Traill B. and Goranssonn G. 1997. A framework for analysing innovation in the food sector. In: Traill, B., and K.G. Grunert (Eds.), Product and process innovation in the food sector. Blackie Academic Publishers, London, UK.
Hall A. 2007. Challenges to strengthening agricultural innovation systems: Where do we go from here? UNU-merit working paper series, 2007-038. (accessed December 18, 2017).
Hall A., Dijkman J., Sulaiman R. 2010. Research into use: Investigating the relationship between agricultural research and innovation. UNU-merit working paper series, 2010-044.
Hargrave T.J. and Van de Ven A.H. 2006. A collective action model of institutional innovation. Academy of Management Review 31(4): 864–888.
Hauschildt J. 1997. Innovationsmanagement. Vahlen, Munich.
Hekkert M.P., Suurs R.A.A., Negro S.O., Kuhlman S. and Smits R.E.H.M. 2007. Functions of innovation systems: a new approach for analysing technological change. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 74, 413–432.
Hinrichs C. C. 2014. Transitions to sustainability: a change in thinking about food systems change? Agric Hum Values 31: 143–155. DOI: 10.1007/s10460-014-9479-5.
HLPE 2017. 2nd Note on Critical and Emerging Issues for Food Security and Nutrition. A note by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome.
Hounkonnou D., Kossou D., Kuyper T.W., Leeuwis C., Nederlof E.S., Röling N., et al. 2012. An innovation systems approach to institutional change: Smallholder development in West Africa. Agricultural Systems 108: 74–83.
IAASTD 2009. Agriculture at a Crossroads - Global Report. International Assessment of Agriculture, Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD). Island Press, Washington, USA. (accessed April 18, 2017).
IIAC 2014. Innovation in agriculture: a key process for sustainable development. Institutional position paper. Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA); San Jose, Costa Rica.
IPES-Food 2015. The New Science of Sustainable Food Systems: Overcoming Barriers to Food Systems Reform. International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food). (accessed April 17, 2017).
Jacobsson S. and Bergek A. 2010. Innovation system analyses and sustainability transitions: contributions and suggestions for research. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transition 1(1), 41–57.
Kemp R. 1994. Technology and the transition to environmental sustainability: the problem of technological regime shifts. Futures 26(10): 1023–1046.
Kemp R. and Rotmans J. 2005. The Management of the Co-evolution of Technical, Environmental and Social Systems. In, Weber M. and Hemmelskamp J. eds. Towards environmental innovation systems, Springer, Berlin & New York; pp. 33–55.
Kemp R. and van Lente H. 2011. The dual challenge of sustainability transitions. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transition 1(1): 121–124.
Kirwan J., Ilbery B., Maye D., Carey J. 2013. Grassroots social innovations and food localization: An investigation of the local food programme in England. Global Environmental Change 23(5): 830–837.
Klerkx L., Aarts N. and Leeuwis C. 2010. Adaptive management in agricultural innovation systems: The interactions between innovation networks and their environment. Agricultural Systems 103(6): 390-400. DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2010.03.012
Kline S. J. and Rosenberg N. 1986. An Overview of Innovation. In, Landau R. and Rosenberg N. eds., The Positive Sum Strategy – Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth. National Academies Press, Washington DC; pp. 275–305.
Kotler P. and Bliemel F. 1999. Marketing Management. C.E. Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart.
Lachman D. 2013. A survey and review of approaches to study transitions. Energy Policy 58: 269–276.
Leach M., Rockström J., Raskin P., Scoones I., Stirling A. C., Smith A., Thompson J., Millstone E., Ely A., Arond E., Folke C. and Olsson P. 2012. Transforming innovation for sustainability. Ecology and Society 17(2): 11.
Levin K., Cashore B., Bernstein S. and Auld G. 2012. Overcoming the tragedy of super wicked problems: constraining our future selves to ameliorate global climate change. Policy Sciences 45(2): 123–152.
Loconto A., Poisot A.S. and Santacoloma P. 2017. Sustainable Practices, Sustainable Markets? Institutional innovations in agri-food systems. In, Elzen B., Augustyn A., Barbier M., van Mierlo B.; AgroEcological Transitions: Changes and Breakthroughs in the Making. pp. 176-194. DOI: (accessed May 16, 2017).
Loorbach D. and Rotmans J. 2010. Transition Management and Strategic Niche Management. Dutch Research Institute for Transitions, Rotterdam.
Lundvall B.Å., Johnson B., Andersen E.S. and Dalum B. 2002. National systems of production, innovation and competence building. Research Policy 31(2): 213-231.
Lundvall B.Å. 1988. Innovation as an interactive process: from user-producer interaction to the national system of innovation. In, Dosi G. et al. eds., Technical Change and Economic Theory. Pinter, London; pp. 349-69.
Lundvall B.Å. 2007. Post Script: Innovation systems research. Where it came from and where it might go. Post Script in new edition of Lundvall B.-Å. (Ed.), National systems of innovation: Toward a theory of innovation and interactive learning, Aalborg University.
Malerba F. 2002. Sectoral systems of innovation and production. Research Policy 31(2): 247–64.
Markard J. and Truffer B. 2008. Technological innovation systems and the multi-level perspective: Towards an integrated framework. Research Policy 37(4): 596–615.
Markard J., Raven R. and Truffer B. 2012. Sustainability transitions: an emerging field of research and its prospects. Research Policy 41(6), 955–967.
Martinez-Ros E. 2000. Explaining the decisions to carry out product and process innovation: the Spanish case. The Journal of High Technology Management Research 10(2): 223-242.
Mbabu A., Hall A. eds. 2012. Capacity building for agricultural research for development: Lessons from practice in Papua New Guinea. United Nations University-Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (UNUMERIT), Maastricht.
Meelen T. and Farla J. 2013. Towards an integrated framework for analysing sustainable innovation policy. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 25(8): 957–970.
Menrad K. and Feigl S. 2007. Innovations in traditional food products in small and medium-sized companies of the food industry: Review of literature. University of Applied Sciences of Weihenstephan, Straubing (Germany).
Murray R., Caulier-Grice J., Mulgan G. 2010. The open book of social innovation.In, Social innovator series: ways to design, develop and grow social innovation. (accessed April 18, 2017).
Nelson R. and Winter S. 1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA).
Nelson R.R. 1988. National systems of innovation – Preface to Part V. In, Dosi, G., Freeman, C., Nelson, R., Silverberg, G., Soete, L. (Eds.), Technical Change and Economic Theory. Pinter, London; pp. 309–311.
OECD 2011. Food and Agriculture. OECD Green Growth Studies. OECD Publishing, Paris.
OECD and Eurostat. 2005. Oslo Manual: Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. Third edition, OECD, Paris.
OECD 1997. The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities: Proposed Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Technological Innovation Data. Paris.
OECD 2011. Fostering innovation to address social challenges. Workshop proceedings. (accessed April 20, 2017).
OECD 2012. Innovation for development. A discussion of the issues and an overview of work of the OECD directorate for science, technology and industry. Paris.
OECD 2013. Agricultural Innovation Systems: A Framework for Analysing the Role of the Government. OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi. org/10.1787/9789264200593-en (accessed May 12, 2017).
Oltra V. And Maider S.-J. 2009. Sectoral systems of environmental innovation: an application to the French automotive industry. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 76: 567–583.
Ormerod P. 1998. Butterfly Economics: A New General Theory of Social and Economic Behavior. Basic Books, New York.
Osburg T. 2013. Social Innovation to Drive Corporate Sustainability. In, Osburg T. and Schmidpeter R. eds., Social Innovation - Solutions for a Sustainable Future. Springer, Berlin; pp. 13-22.
Özçatalbaş O. 2014. Extension and innovations: diffusion of innovations. In, Sayılı M., Oruç E., Günal H., Önen H. (Eds.), Agricultural Extension and Consultancy, Volume I. Gaziosmanpaşa University Publication, Tokat (Turkey), pp. 121-136.
Padilla-Péreza R. and Gaudin Y. 2014. Science, technology and innovation policies in small and developing economies: the case of Central America. Research Policy 43(4): 749–759.
Peters G.B. and Pierre J. 2014. Food policy as a wicked problem: contending with multiple demands and actors. World Food Policy 1(1): 2–9.
Pleschak F. and Sabisch H. 1996. Innovationsmanagement. Schäffer Pöschel, Stuttgart.
Pound B. and Essegbey G. 2008. Agricultural Innovation Systems. In, Strengthening Capacity for Agricultural Research and Development in Africa, Briefing papers, Volume 3, FARA, Accra (Ghana), pp. 46-58.
Rip A. and Kemp R. 1998. Technological change. In, Rayner S., Malone E.L. eds., Human Choice and Climate Change; Battelle Press, Columbus (OH); pp. 327–399.
Rogers EM. 2003. Diffusion of Innovations. Free Press, New York.
Röling N. 1990. The agricultural research-technology transfer interface: a knowledge system perspective. In: Kaimowitz, D. (Ed.). Making the link: agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, USA; pp. 1-42.
Röling N. 2009. Pathways for impact: scientists’ different perspectives on agricultural innovation. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 7: 83–94.
Rosenberg N. 1976. Perspectives on Technology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Rotmans J., Kemp R. and van Asselt M. 2001. More evolution than revolution: transition management in public policy. Foresight 3, 15–31.
Rotmans J., Kemp R., van Asselt M.B.A., Geels F.W., Verbong G. and Molendijk K. 2000. Transitions & Transition Management: the case of an emission-poor energy supply. International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht.
Sartorius C. 2006. Second-order sustainability – conditions for the development of sustainable innovations in a dynamic environment. Ecological Economics, 58(2):268–286.
Schumpeter J. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA).
Schumpeter J. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Harper & Row, New York.
Shaver E.F. 2016. The Many Definitions of Innovation. (accessed May 27, 2017).
Smith A., Voß J.-P. and Grin J. 2010. Innovation studies and sustainability transitions: The allure of the multi-level perspective and its challenges. Research Policy 39: 435–448.
Smith A. 2006. Green niches in sustainable development: the case of organic food in the United Kingdom. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 24: 439–458.
Spielman D. J., Ekboir J., Davis K. 2009. The art and science of innovation systems inquiry: Applications to Sub-Saharan African agriculture. Technology in Society 31: 399–405.
Spielman D., Davis K., Negash M., Ayele G. 2011. Rural innovation systems and networks: findings from a study of Ethiopian smallholders. Agriculture and Human Values 28: 195–212.
STEPS Centre 2010. Innovation, Sustainability, Development: A New Manifesto. STEPS Centre, Brighton, UK.
Sterrenberg L., Andringa J., Loorbach D., Raven R. and Wieczorek A. 2013. Low-carbon transition through system innovation: Theoretical notions and applications. Pioneers into Practice mentoring program 2013. transition through system innovation 2013 reader final.pdf (accessed April 19, 2017).
STRN 2010. A mission statement and research agenda for the Sustainability Transitions Research Network. Sustainability Transitions Research Network (STRN). Retrieved from (accessed 6 January, 2017).
STRN 2017. A research agenda for the Sustainability Transitions Research Network. Retrieved from (accessed 15 December, 2017).
Stummer C., Guenther M. and Köck A.M. 2010. Grundzuege des Innovations- und Technologiemanagements. Facultas, Vienna.
Turner J.A, Williams T., Nicholas G., Foote J., Rijswijk K., Barnard T., Beechener S. and Horita A. 2017. Triggering system innovation in agricultural innovation systems: Initial insights from a community for change in New Zealand. Outlook on Agriculture 46(2): 125–130.
Tushman M.L. and O’Reilly C.A. 1996. Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change. California Management Review 38(4): 8–30.
Twomey P. and Gaziulusoy A.I. 2014. Review of System Innovation and Transitions Theories - Concepts and frameworks for understanding and enabling transitions to a low carbon built environment. Working paper for the Visions & Pathways project, March 2014. (accessed January 26, 2017).
Tyfield D. 2011. Food systems transition and disruptive low carbon innovation: implications for a food security research agenda. Journal of Experimental Botany 62(11): 3701–3706. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/err123
UN 2012. Science, technology and innovation for sustainable development in the global partnership for development beyond 2015. The UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda. (accessed May 29, 2017).
UNCTAD 2017. The Role of Science, Technology and Innovation in Ensuring Food Security by 2030. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (accessed May 30, 2017).
Van de Ven A.H. and Hargrave T.J. 2004. Social, Technical and Institutional Change: A Literature Review and Synthesis. In, Poole, M.S. and Van de Ven A.H. eds., Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation. Oxford University Press, New York; pp. 259-303.
van den Bergh J.C.J.M., Truffer B. and Kallis G. 2011. Environmental innovation and societal transitions: introduction and overview. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 1(1), 1–23.
Wegner G. 1991. Wohlfahrtsaspekte evolutorischen Marktgeschehens. Tubingen, Mohr.
Wieczorek A. and Hekkert M. 2011. System instruments for systemic innovation problems: a framework for policy makers and innovation scholars. Innovation Studies Utrecht Working Paper No. 11.08, University of Utrecht.
Wieczorek A., Marko J., Hekkert P. and Smits R. 2012. Contemporary Innovation Policy and Instruments: Challenges and Implications. Innovation Studies Utrecht (ISU) Working Paper Series Paper No 09.12, University of Utrecht.
Wittkopp A. 2004. Produktinnovation und Performance. Eine empirische Analyse des deutschen Ernährungsgewerbes. In, European University Studies, Volume 3069, Peter Lang Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften, Frankfurt.
World Bank 2006. Enhancing Agricultural Innovation: How to Go Beyond the Strengthening of Research Systems. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) - The World Bank (WB), Washington DC. (accessed June 22, 2017).
World Bank 2012. Agricultural innovation systems: An investment sourcebook. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Wyckoff A. 2016. Measuring science, technology and innovation. OECD, Paris.