Document Type: Original Article


1 Ph.D. in Agricultural Development, Agriculture and Natural Resource Campus, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Associate Prof, Agriculture and Natural Resource Campus, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for Agricultural Entrepreneurs Empowerment in Javanrod, Salasebabajani, Ravansar and Paveh counties of Kermanshah Province. The structural impact obtained was based on different qualitative techniques and was analysed based on the SWOT model. The finding suggested that the most effective strengths were: adoption of social responsibilities increasing with weighted score "0.305", knowledge, attitudes and values increasing in the agricultural entrepreneurs with weighted score "0.300"; the most effective weaknesses were: Lack of enough capital with weighted score "0.260", lack of entrepreneurial culture with weighted score "0.208"; the most effective opportunities were: supporting ideas and projects with weighted score "0.330", entrepreneurial skills trading (the capacity to identify opportunities, problems and solutions) with weighted score "0.315", and the most effective threats were: lack of economic security "0.265" and suitable market lack for products "0.250". The results suggested that by aggressive strategies such as training and entrepreneurial skills development and technical, knowing the sources of ideas, using new technologies, increasing access to training and funds, access to commercial networks, creating exhibitions and conferences application; adaptive strategy promoting use of banking facilities; contingency strategies such as reducing the threat of being able to create diverse career opportunities, reducing administrative bureaucracy, difficulty in getting a licence and infrastructure to create suitable market production; defence strategy including reduction of threats such as economic insecurity can be used as background empowerment entrepreneurs for agricultural entrepreneurs empowerment.

Graphical Abstract


The most important aggressive strategies of this study: training and entrepreneurial skills development and technical, knowing the sources of ideas.

The most important adaptive strategy: promoting use of banking facilities.

The most important contingency strategies: reducing the threat of being able to create diverse career opportunities, reducing administrative bureaucracy.

The most important defence strategy: reducing threat economic insecurity.



Main Subjects

Abdollahi, B. (2005). Employee psychological empowerment: Dimensions and validation on the structural equation model. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 11(35- 36), 37-64. (In Persian).

Agahi, H., & Karami, Sh. (2012). A study of factors effecting social capital management and its impact on success of production cooperatives. Annals of Biological Research, 3(8), 4179-4188.

Aghlmand, S., & Akbari, F. (2005). Empowering a management strategy for achieving sustainable development. Paper presented at 3th International Management Conference, 20-23 December, Tehran, Ariana Research Group. (In Persian)

Aqajani, A. A., Karimi, M., & Mohhmadi, M. (2008). Present an integrated model of factors affecting information technology in entrepreneurial activities. Paper presented at 1th National Conference on entrepreneurship, creativity and future organizations, 25-26 February, Tehran, Andeshehgaran Company Iran’s Entrepreneurship Science and Technology. (In Persian)

Abbot, P., & Wales, K. (2001). Sociology women. Translation: Manezheh Najmeh Iraqi. Tehran: Ne Publishing (In Persian).

Anand Singh, K., & Krishna, K. V. S. M. (1994). Agricultural entrepreneurship: the concept and evidence. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 3(1), 10-15.

Appelbaum, S. H., & Hongger, K. (1998). Empowerment: a contrasting overview of organizations in general and nursing in particular- an examination of organizational factors, managerial behaviours, job design and structural power. Journal of Empowerment in Organization, 6(2), 29-50.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Blanchard, K., Carlos, C., & Randolph, A. (2002). Enabling management personnel (2nd Ed.). Translated by Mehdi Irannejad Prize. Thran: Publications managers. (In Persian).

Breeding, R. (2008). Empowerment as a function of contextual self-understanding:  The effect of work interest profiling on career decision, self-efficacy and work locus of control. Rehabilitation counselling Bulletin, 51(2), 96-106.

Bulut, C., & Alpkan, L. (2006). Behavioural consequences of an entrepreneurial climate within large organizations: An integrative proposed model, the South East European. Journal of Economics and Business, 1(2), 64-70.

Chang, L. Ch., Shih, Ch. H., & Lin, Sh. M. (2010). The mediating role of psychology empowerment on job satisfaction and organizational commitment for school health nurses: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47, 427-433.

Cole, R. E., & Bachayan, P. (2007). Quality, participation and competiveness, California Management Review, 35(3), 68-81.

Crane, F.G., & Meyer, M. (2009). The entrepreneurial climate in Canada: The entrepreneur’s viewpoint. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 19(3), 223-232.

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471- 482.

Dickson, K. E., & Lorenz, A. (2009). Psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of temporary and part-time nonstandard workers: A Preliminary Investigation. Journal of Behavioural and Applied Management, 10(2), 166-191.

Gagne, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organization Behaviour, 26, 331-362.

Gholipour, A., Rahimian, A., & Mirzamani, A. (2008). The role of education and occupation in Tehran empowerment of women. Women's Research Journal, 6(3), 113-132. (In Persian)

Gibbs, D. (2009). Empowering programs with evaluation technical assistance: Outcomes and lessons learned. Health Promotion Practice, 10(1), 38-44.

Gumus, F., Eskin, I., Veznikli, A. N., & Gumus, M. (2007). Availability of rural tourism for gallipoli villages: The potentials and attitudes. Paper presented at International Tourism Biennial Conference, 20 November, Turkey.

Haverkort, A.W., & Engel, P. (2006). Knowledge systems and agricultural development. manual for workshop (3), of the International Course in Rural Extension, Wageningen: International Agricultural Centre, pp1-4.

Javaheri kamel, M. (2009). The effect of organizational justice, the relationship between the leader - member, trust and empowerment and organizational citizenship behaviour’s. Police Human Development Journal, 24, 7-24 (In Persian).

Ketabi, M., Yazdkhasti, B., & Farokhrastabi, Z. (2003). Empowerment for participation in development. Women's Journal, 1(7), 30-5 (In Persian).

Kline, S. C. (2007). The Role of entrepreneurial climate in rural tourism development, raleigh, North Carolina. Unpublished dissertation, Faculty of North Carolina State University, US.

Kumar, S., & Ali, J. (2010). Indian agri-seed industry: Understanding the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(3), 455-474.

Mafi, F. (2006). Microcredit (characteristics, experiences, concerns, strategies). Institute for Strategic Research Economics Research Group. Publications: Shadan (In Persian).

Malhotra, A., Schuler, S. R., & Boender, C. (2002). Measuring women empowerment as variable in international development. Backgrund paper prepared for the World Bank workshop on poverty and gender. Washington, D, C.: International Centre for Research on Women.

Mishra, A. K., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1999). Explaining how survivors respond to downsizing: The roles of trust, empowerment. The Academy of Management Review, 23, (3), 567- 88.

Mooghali, A., Hassanpour, A., & Hassanpour, M. (2009). Surveying of the relationship between employee empowerment and organizational commitment in the 19 Districts of Tehran Education Organization. Journal of Public Administration, 1(2), 119-132. (In Persian).

Moye, M. J., Henkin A. B., & Egley R. J. (2005). Teacher-principle relationships exploring linkages between empowerment and interpersonal trust. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(3), 260- 277.

Rezvani, M. R., & Najjarzadeh, M. (2009). Study and analysis of villagers, background knowledge on entrepreneurship in the process of rural development case study: South Baraan District (Isfahan County). Journal of Entrepreneurship, 1(2), 182-161 (In Persian).

Richardson, D. (2006). The internal and rural and agricultural development. FAO: Rome, Communication for Development, p. 80.

Roxas, H., Lindsay, V., Ashill, N., & Antong, V. (2007). An institutional view of local entrepreneurial climate. Asia Pacific Social Science Review, 7(1), 1-8.

Shaditalab, ZH. (2004). Development and challenges of Iranian women. Tehran: Qatreh Publication (In Persian).

Shakori, A. (2008). Supportive policies and women's empowerment. Faculty of Literatures & Humanities (Teacher Education), 16(61), 158-156 (In Persian).

Sivayojanathan, C. (1985). Training and visit system in Sri Lanka: The relative importance of contact farmers as a source of rice production information. Agricultural Administration, 18(3), 127-135.

Spreitzer, G. M. (2007). Taking stock: Are view of more than twenty years of research on empowerment at work. The Hand Book of Organizational Behaviour, sage Publication.

Stewart, J. G., McNulty. R., Quinn, G., Mary, T., & Fitzpatrick, J. (2010). Psychology empowerment and structural empowerment among nurse practitioners. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22, 27-34.

Storey, D. (1999). Issues of integration, participation and empowerment in rural development: The case of LEADER in the republic of Ireland. Journal of Rural Studies, 15(3), 307-315.

Tansel, A. (2002). Economic development and female labour force participation in Turkey: Time – series evidence and cross-province Estimates. Economic Research Canter (ERC) Working Papers in Economics, 1(5), 1-37.

Thomas, K.W., & Velthhouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: an interpretive model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 15(4), 666-681.

Tohidi, H., & Jabbari, M .M. (2012). The aspects empowerment of human resources. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 31, 829-833.

Ketchum, L., Trist E. (1992). All teams are created equal: how employee empowerment really works. Sage publications.

Yue Fook, Ch., Brinten, L., Kaur Sidha, G., & Say Fooi. F. (2011). Relationships between psychology empowerment with work motivation and with ward intention among secondary school principals in Malaysia. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 15, 2907- 2911.

Wang, Y., & Costello, P. (2009). An investigation into innovations in SMEs: Evidence from the West Midlands, UK. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 18(1), 65-93.

Wetten. D. A., & Cameron, K. S. (1998). Developing management skills. New York: Addison- Wesley, Wheelan.

World Bank (2002). Empowerment and poverty reduction-A sourcebook. Retrieved from  INTEMPOWERMENT/.../draft sum.