Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Management, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran

3 Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch

4 MA in Business Management, Department of Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran


The rapid world economic growth has driven the businesses towards involvement in international marketplaces due to lower business risks, lower commitment of resources, and higher flexibility of these markets. However, evidence indicates that barriers to exportation vary across different stages of internationalization. Therefore, this empirical study was carried out to explore exportation barriers of agricultural commodities, especially honey, in Iran. Based on an explorative literature review, several factors were considered as export barriers of agricultural commodities. These barriers were provided to a sample of 20 honey exporters in Ardabil province using a questionnaire. After collecting and analyzing the data, 21 factors were identified as the important barriers to honey export. A graph theory-based technique (DEMATEL) with feedback structure was used to explore the direct and indirect effects of barriers on the other barriers and the whole system. The results indicate that adjusting export promotion activities, lack of home government assistance/incentives, shortage of working capital to finance exports, high tariff and nontariff barriers, different foreign customer habits/attitudes are the most critical barriers in the order of importance. 


Expansion of international trade is a very important issue especially in developing countries.

Companies in developing countries usually encounter many export barriers while entering new markets.

Mathematical models are useful tools to identify critical barriers to export.

Graph theory-based method (DEMATEL) is used to identify critical barriers of honey export in Ardebil province.

The results show the most critical export barriers among all.


Main Subjects

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