Document Type: Original Article

Author

Assistant Professor Agricultural Extension Department, Soushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran.

Abstract

associated with this condition among summer crop growers in Shoushtar Township, Khouzestan Province, Iran. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2017. The population consisted of summer crop farmers in the Shoushtar Township (N=850). The sample size was determined based on Morgan table (n=150). For analyzing food security level, the 18-item USDA household food security questionnaire, which contains questions that underlie the 12-month food security scale in survey-instrument form, was used.  The food security scale was developed based on responses to questions Q2 to Q16 (18 questions). These include both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the household's food supply as well as household members' psychological and behavioral responses. Based on the results, more than half of households (52.67%) experienced food insecurity and less than half (47.33%) indicating that they are food secure. Correlation coefficient results showed that there was significant relationship between the income, educational level, extension education activities, social participation, technical knowledge and food security. Based on regression analysis, income, educational level, extension education activities, technical knowledge and social participation may well explain for 75.43% changes (R2=0.7543) in level of food security.

Graphical Abstract

Highlights

  • Education appears to be a key factor for food security.
  • There was relationship between extension education activities and food security.
  • There was relationship between social participation and food security.
  • Income was significantly related to food security.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Abbasi, N., Ghoochani, O., Ghanian, M., & Kitterlin, M. (2016).Assessment of households’ food insecurity through use of a USDA Questionnaire.Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research, 4(5), 1-8.

Bickel, G., Nord, M., Price, C., Hamilton, W.,&Cook, J. (2000). Guide to Measuring Household Food Security, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Alexandria VA. March, 2000. Retrieved 29 September 2016. https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/FSGuide.pdf

Boeing, G. (2016). How our neighborhoods lost food, and how they can get it back. Progressive Planning, 206 (1), 35–37.

Chizari, M., & Ommani, A. R. (2009).The analysis of dryland sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 33 (8), 848-861.

Dean, W.R., &Sharkey, J.R. (2011). Food insecurity, social capital and perceived personal disparity in a predominantly rural region of Texas: An individual-level analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 72(9), 1454-1462.

FAO (1997).The food system and factors affecting household food security and nutrition. Agriculture, food and nutrition for Africa: A resource book for teachers of agriculture. Rome: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department.  http://www.fao.org/docrep/w0078e/w0078e04.htm

FAO (2009). Declaration of the world food summit on food security. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy.

Gregory, P. J., Ingram, J. S. I., & Brklacich, M. (2005).Climate change and food security. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360 (1463), 2139–2148.

Hackett, M., Quiñonez, M.H., Taylor, C.A., &Uribe, A.M.C. (2010). Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia. Arch Latinoam Nutrient 60(1), 42-47.

Maxwell, S., & Frankenberger, T. (1992). Household food security concepts, indicators, and measurements. UNICEF, New York.

Moltedo, A., Troubat, N., Lokshin, M.,&Sajaia, Z. (2014). Analyzing food security using household survey data.International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The World Bank 1818 H Street NW Washington, DC 20433.

Moradi, Z., Kazemi, F., Esteki, T., & Mirmiran, P. (2015). Household food security in Iran: Asystematic review of Iranian Studies. Scientific Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 24(87), 63-76. (In Persian).

Napoli, M., De Muro, P., & Mazziotta, M. (2011). Towards a Food Insecurity Multidimensional Index (FIMI). Roma Tre University, Rom, Italy.

Ommani, A.R. (2011). Productivity of energy consumption in agricultural productions: A case study of corn farmers of Ahwaz Township, Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(13), 2945-2949.

Ommani, A.R., Chizari, M., Salmanzadeh, C., & Hossaini, J.F. (2009). Extension methods and organizational characteristics for supporting sustainable water resource management in agriculture of Iran. Journal of Applied Sciences, 9,567-572.

Pyab, M., Dorostimotlagh, A., Eshraghian, M., Siasi, F., & Karimi, T. (2010). Connection between food insecurity and some socioeconomic and nutritional factors among the mothers with school child of participants of Rey in 2010.Journal of Nutrition Science and Food Industry, 7(1), 75-84.

Saadi, H., Azizi, M., & Azami, M. (2014). Extension education and food security, farmer households (Case Study: Qorveh Township). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 45(3), 483-499.

Salem, J., & Mojaverian, M. (2013). The study of food import capacity effects on rural households’ food security in Iran. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 4(6), 1234-1240.

Savari, M., ShabanaliFami, H., & DanshvarAmeri, Zh. (2015).Evaluation of the ability of rural women to improve household food security in the city Divandarreh. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 3(8), 107-121, (In Persian).

Scialabba, N. (2011). Food availability and natural resource use. Natural Resources Management and Environment Department, FAO. FAO/OECD Expert Meeting on Greening the Economy with Agriculture Paris, 5 – 7 September 2011.

Simsek, H., Meseri R., Sahin, S., &Ucku, R. (2013). Prevalence of food insecurity and malnutrition, factors related to malnutrition in the elderly: A community-based, cross-sectional study from Turkey. European Geriatric Medicine, 4(4), 226-230.

Sseguya, H. (2009). Impact of social capital on food security in southeast Uganda. Unpublished dissertation submitted to the graduate faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy, Sociology Department, Iowa State University Ames, Iowa.

Tabatabai, G.M., Omidwar, N., & Alihoseini, J. (2011). Socioeconomic factors of food insecurity strength among the vulnerable population in district 20 of Tehran. Journal of Social Sciences, 52, 69-94.

Tweeten, L. (1999). The economics of global food security. Review of Agricultural Economics, 21 (2), 473–488. 

United States Department of Agriculture (2009). Food Security in the United States: Measuring Household Food Security; United States Department of Agriculture: Washington, DC, USA, p. 66.

USDA (2012).U.S. Household Food Security survey module. United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, USA.

World Food Summit (1996). Rome Declaration on World Food Security. FAO: Rome, Italy.