Document Type : Original Article


Federal College of Wildlife Management, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria


Group dynamics features are important factors for improving farmers’ socio-economic status. This study focused on the effect of group dynamics features on the socio-economic status of cocoa farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 93 cocoa farmers for the study. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were used to analyze the data. Results showed that the mean monetary value of their material possessions, income generated from the cocoa producer per production cycle per year and other agricultural production activities were 9,819,796.60 Naira, 2,693,900 Naira and 1,887,400 Naira respectively. Majority (51.7%) of the cocoa farmers are of moderate socioeconomic status (M=4,800,365.53 Naira). Results showed that the group dynamics features of the cocoa farmers are high in group cohesion (M=31.04) and leadership dynamism (M=25.75) while it is low in group attitude and behavior (M=23.09), discipline, trust and accountability (M=17.76) and group rapport (M=14.47). The results of linear regression revealed that farming experience (β=0.301) and educational level (β=0.561) significantly (p< 0.01) increased the socio-economic status of the cocoa farmers. The study concluded that personal characteristics can influence cocoa farmers’ socio-economic status and their group dynamics features. The study recommended that cocoa farmers’ personal characteristics (educational level and farming experience) should be improved through intervention programs, training and sensitization as this will translate into better-quality group dynamics features thereby enhancing their socio-economic status.


  • Cocoa farmers make a reasonable income as revenue per production cycle of cocoa and other agricultural production activities and because of this, they acquire more materials over time to secure themselves.
  • Cocoa farmers’ group dynamics features were high in group cohesion and leadership dynamism while it was low in group attitude and behavior, discipline, trust and accountability and group rapport.
  • There was a significant impact of cocoa farmers’ farming experience and educational level on their socio-economic status.
  • There was a significant relationship between the educational level of cocoa farmers and their group dynamics features (discipline, trust and accountability of cocoa farmers).


Main Subjects

Adebayo, S. A. & Adekunle, O. A. (2016). Socio-economic status of women in group membership in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. Agrosearch, 16(1), 59 – 67.
Adegboye, M. A. (2016). Socio-economic Status Categories of Rural Dwellers in Northern Nigeria. Advances in Research, 7(2), 1-10.
Adeogun, S. O., Olawoye, J. E., & Akinbile, L. A (2010). Information sources to cocoa farmers on cocoa rehabilitation techniques (CRTs) in selected states of Nigeria. Journal Media and Communication Studies, 2(1), 009-015.
Adetunji, M. O., Olaniyi, O. A., & Raufu, M. O. (2007). Assessment of benefits derived by cocoa farmers from cocoa development unit activities of Oyo State. Journal of Human Ecology, 22(3), 211 – 214.
Ahokas, M. (2010). Ryhmät ja niiden väliset suhteet. In Suoninen, Eero, Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija, Lahikainen, Anja Riitta, Ahokas, Marja. Arjen sosiaalipsykologiaa. WSOYpro Oy. 185-242.
Ajah, E. A., Itam, K.O., & Asuquo, I.A. (2014). Analysis of cooperative societies’ effectiveness in credit delivery to agricultural enterprises in Calabar Municipality of Cross River State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4(8). 354-361
Akinbile, L. (2003). Technology Dissemination, Agricultural Productivity and Poverty Reduction in the Rural Sector of Nigeria. (a. p. Technology dissemination, Ed.) Ibadan: El Shaddai Global Ventures Ltd.
Akinbile, L. (2007). Standardization of Soci-economic status for farm families in South West Nigeria. Journal of Social Science, 14(3), 221- 227.
Alabi, J. A., & Ahiawodzi (2007). Effect of Susu - a traditional microfinance mechanism on the Organised and Non- organized micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Ghana. African Journal of Business Management, 1(8), 201-208.
Amos, T.T. (2007). An analysis of productivity and technical efficiency of smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 15(2), 127–133.
Anigbogu, T. U., Agbasi, O. E., & Okoli, I. M. (2015). Socioeconomic factors influencing agricultural production among cooperative farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 4(3), 43-58
Awe, C. A. (1995). The adoption of maize Downy Mildew disease control measures in Lagelu Local Government Area Ibadan. Unpublished thesis, Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Pp.65.
Ayodele, O.V., Fasina, O. O., & Awoyemi, A. O. (2016). Gender analysis of Cocoa Farmers’ Access to production resources in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Applied Tropical Agriculture, 21(3), 131-137.
Bolarinwa, K. K., & Fakoya, E. O. (2011). Impact of Farm Credit on Farmers Socio-economic Status. Journal of Social Science, 26(1), 67-71.
Damian Ila, A., Ben Ohen, S., Okoi Itam, K., N. Inyang, N. (2012). Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, 2(3), 177-185.
Dommata, S. K. G. & Konagala, S. C. H. (2014). Impact of group dynamics on teams working in software engineering. Unpublished thesis, Faculty of Computing, Blekinge Institute of Technology, SE-371 79, Karlskrona, Sweden.
Enete, A. A., & Amusa, T. A. (2010). Determinants of women’s contribution to farm decisions in cocoa-based agroforestry households of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Field Actions Science Reports. 4:1-6. URL:
Fabiyi, E. F., Danladi, B. B., Akande K. E., & Mahmood, Y. (2007). Role of women in agricultural development and their constraints: A case study of Biliri Local Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6(6), 676– 680. 
Gray, A. (2001). The world cocoa market outlook. LMC International Ltd, Ghana.
Guru-Raj, M. S., Shilpa, S., & Maheshwaran, R. (2015). Revised socio-economic status scale for urban and rural India. The Scientific Journal for Theory and Practice of Socio-Economic Development, 4(7), 167-174.
International Cooperative Alliance (2011). New opportunities for co-operatives: new opportunities for people. Retrieved 29 March 2019 from International Cooperative Alliance.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (2003). Joining together. Group theory and group skills, 8th ed. Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.
Karau, S. J. & Williams, K. D. (1997). The effects of group cohesiveness on social loafing and social compensation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(2), 156 -168.
Larson, C. E., & LaFasto, F. M. J. (1989). Team Work, What Must Go Right: What Can Go Wrong. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, California, 1989, 150 Pages. Retrieved 27 March 2019 from
Levi, D. (2007). Group dynamics for teams (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc. 359 pages.
Moyo, O. N., & Kawewe, S. M. (2002). The dynamics of racialized, gendered, ethnicized, and economically stratified society: understanding the socio-economic status of women in Zimbabwe. Feminist Economics, 8(2), 163-181.
Nweze, N. J. (2001). Poverty, Microfinance and cooperative promotion in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Cooperative Studies, 1, 2 – 5.
Ofuoku A. U., & Urang, E. (2009). Effect of cohesion on loan repayment in farmer cooperatives societies in Delta State,Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology. 1(4), 70-76.
Oladejo, M. A. (2008). Information technology on service delivery: An investigation into some selected Nigerian Insurance Companies. in Proceedings of International Conference on Research and Development held at the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, Accra Ghana.
Otieno, O. D. (2012). Impact of farmer groups on crop enterprise productivity and economic welfare of smallholder. Unpublished thesis, Egerton University, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, South Kivu Territories, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Ovwigho, B. O. (2014). Standardization of a Socio-economic Status Scale for Heads of Rural Arable Farm Families in the North Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 17 (1), 1717-1725.
Oyeyinka, R. (2002). Impact of Nigeria Agricultural and Cooperative Bank Small Holder Direct Loan Scheme on Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria. Unpublished dissertation Dept. of Agric Extension, Ibadan.
Phan, L., Rivera, E., Volker, M., & Garrett, M. (2007). Measuring Group Dynamics: An Exploratory Trial. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy / Revue canadienne de counseling et de psychothérapie, 38(4). Retrieved from
Ramesh, M. N. R. & Gangaboraiah, K. P. (2013). An exploratory study on socioeconomic status scales in a rural and urban setting. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 2(1), 69-73.
Uchendu, S. O. (1998). Fundamentals of Cooperation business enterprise. Published by Rejoint Communication Ltd, Uwani, Enugu. 64 pp.
Yunus, M. (2003). Banker to the Poor: Micro-Lending and the Battle against World Poverty. New York: Public Affairs, 312 pp.
Yunus, M. (2007). Creating a World without Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism. New York: Public Affairs, 296 pp.
Zander, A. (1982). Making Groups Effective. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 188 pp.