Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 PhD. student, Business Management, Islamic Azad university of Central Tehran Branch,Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Business Management, Qeshm International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

3 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Business Management, Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Business Management,Central Branch, Islamic Azad University, Central Branch,Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The main purpose of this qualitative research was designing an export marketing strategy model for tea product to the target markets. The statistical population was composed of all experts in the field of this research topic (N = 332), the sample size was determined as the same as the statistical population. Second-hand data used for collecting data and a semi-structured interview was used as a research tool. Five series of interviews were conducted with the experts. In order to identify the status of tea export, the first interview was done with tea exporters during 2016 (87 people were interviewed). The second interview was done with factory holders for investigating the status of green tea leaf and dry tea as well as the respective model (170 companies were interviewed). In the third step, the experts and practitioners were interviewed (50 people were interviewed) for providing the research model. The fourth interview was done with experts of the tea research centre and organization (10 people were interviewed) to examine the status of tea gardens, green tea, and dry tea production and the main model. Finally, some Iranian business and economic advisers were interviewed in the fifth step. The results showed that direct export - business partner was as the most suitable method to enter the target markets. Participation in the related fairs in the target country and invitation and presence of traders of target markets in Iran determined as the most appropriate method for market penetration and development strategy. Low price with more discounts was seen as more suitable in pricing strategy. Top quality and top packaging were selected as the best method regarding product strategy. Selection of top distributors in each country and chain stores were determined for the product distribution. Using the brand of target market, digital marketing, fair, and social networks were recognized as more suitable regarding promotion strategy. Gardener and factory holder cooperating, agricultural improvement of tea gardens, promoting quality of green leaf of tea, and using modern types of machinery for cultivation and harvesting in production strategy was the most important production strategy. In addition, differentiation through special taste and smell of Iranian tea, high quality, and attractive packaging design and type were recognized as more suitable selected as the best differentiation strategy.

Graphical Abstract

Highlights

  • Foreign trade today is one of the most important policies of any country.
  • Increasing Iran’s foreign trade share at international level may bring about economic prosperity and subsequently development.
  • Strategy can be regarded as the way of realization of organizational mission, so that the organization investigates and identifies external factors and internal factors through this way, and properly utilizes internal strength and external opportunities, eliminates internal weaknesses, and avoids external threats.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Amin Naseri, M. R., Moradi, M., & Malihi, E. (2008). The architecture of Iran's tea Supply Chain. Iranian Journal of Trade Studies, 46, 119-143.

Asopa, V. N. (2007). Tea industry of India the cup that cheers has tears, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, w.p.No.2007-07-02

Belakshahi Lashe, A., & Abbasi, B. (2015). Identification and ranking of factors influencing the development of tea exports in Guilan Province based on porter diamond model. Paper presented at International Conference on New Achievements in Economic Accounting Management (17 September, 2015), Nikan Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and techniques (2nd Ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Farahanifar, S., Karim, M.H., Borji, N., Karimfar, M.R., & Sardar Shahraki, A. (2015). Review the challenges and strategies for improving the country's tea industry business. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, 1 (1), 31-42.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (2015).World tea production and trade current and future development.  Retrieved from www.fao.org/3/a-i4480e.pdf

Glaser, B. G., & Hon, P. (2012). Constructivist grounded theory? The Grounded Theory Review, 11(1), 28-38.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Aldine Publishing, New York NY.

Griffith, D. A., Lee, H. S., Yeo, C. S., & Calantone, R. (2014). Marketing process adaptation: Antecedent factors and new product performance implications in export markets. International Marketing Review, 31(3), 308-334.

Jones, J. W. (2009). Selection of grounded theory as an appropriate research methodology for a dissertation: One student’s perspective. The Grounded Theory Review, 8 (2), 23-34.

Kantapipat, W. (2009). The determinant of successful export marketing strategy in Thai processed agricultural products. Ramkhamhaeng University International Journal, 3(1), 91-102.

Kim, J.J., & Hemmert, M. (2016). What drives the export performance of small and medium-sized subcontracting firms? A study of Korean manufacturers. International Business Review, 25(2), 511-521.

Mesgarian Gholami, A., Aghajani Rik, R., Dervishzadeh, F., & Nasir Ahmadi, A. (2017). Strategic analysis of tea industry in North of Iran using SWOT Model. Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Economics and Management (10 May, 2017), Rasht, Islamic Azad University of Rasht, Iran.

Mousavi Shahroudi, M., & Abbasi Mehr, N. (2016). Identification and prioritization of food industry products with competitive strategies in export development to help solve the country's unemployment and immigration problems. Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Research in Management and Accounting (9 September, 2016), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Movahedi, M., & Ghorbani Khoda Shahri, N. (2017). Comparative advantage of Iranian tea exports and its comparison with major exporting countries. Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Economics and Management (10 May, 2017), Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran.

Nankeli, M. (2017). A look at the tea economy in Iran and the world. Research Report, Political Affairs Directorate for Research on the Iranian Broadcasting Institute. Retrieved from http://www.iribnews.ir/files/fa/news/1396/9/28/1703882_347.pdf

Office of Economic Affairs, Deputy Director of Planning and Economic Affairs of the Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.) 2016(. Report on the state of the tea industry in the country. Fourth Report, Retrieved from https://facility.maj.ir/Dorsapax/Data/Sub_46/File/3.pdf

Pinho, J. C., & Martins, L. (2010). Exporting barriers: Insights from Portuguese small-and medium-sized exporters and non-exporters. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 8(3), 254-272.