Document Type : Original Article


1 Ms.c Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Associate professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


Over 90 percent of the agrarian system in the west of Iran is based on family farming. Thus, rural people in this region are dependent on agricultural resources, pastoral systems, and nonfarm activities for their livelihood, which has heightened their vulnerability to climate change. Therefore, this study aims to measure the livelihood resilience of family farming to climate change in Mahidasht. For this purpose, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2018. A total of 338 wheat farmers were selected for interview on the basis of a systematic random sampling method. The instrument developed by the Speranza module was translated into the Persian language. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha and Cohen's Kappa coefficient. Results revealed that the capacity for learning was improved compared to the other components of livelihood resilience. However, less than half of all participants (44.51) did not have adequate self-organization. Based on the results, the framework proposed for measuring livelihood resilience has a holistic view and can measure all aspects of resilience. It is, thus, recommended to use this framework in the research related to this field. Moreover, livelihood resilience to climate change was found to be influenced by gender, marital status, age, and level of education. Hence, it is recommended to local planners and relevant authorities to consider these differences when developing livelihood resilience plans in the region and design their plans based on these differences.

Graphical Abstract

Livelihood Resilience to Climate Change in Family Farming System (Case Study: Wheat Farmers’ Mahidasht in Kermanshah)


Main Subjects

Aldrich, D. P. (2017). The Importance of social capital in building community resilience.  Rethinking resilience, adaptation and transformation in a time of change. Published by Springer. Chapter 2: 357-364
Alshehri, S., Rezgui, Y., & Li, H. (2015). Delphi-based consensus study into a framework of community resilience to disaster. Natural Hazards, 75(3), 2221–2245.
Anees, M. M., Mohamed, H. E., & Abdel Razek, M. E. (2013). Evaluation of change management efficiency of construction contractors. Housing and Building National Research Center, 9(1), 77-85.
Ashraf, S. (2014). Measuring the resilience of small-holder farmer to shocks: aurepalle a case in point. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Patancheru. Andhra Pradesh, India.
Aslam Saja, A. M., Teo, M., Goonetilleke, A., & Ziyath, A. M. (2018). An inclusive and adaptive framework for measuring social resilience to disasters. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 28, 862-873.
Badri, S. A., Ramazannejad., Y., & Estehkam. H. (2014). The assessment of components affecting social capital in rural settlements (Case study: rural settlements of Asalem District). Geography and Sustainability of Environmental, 4(12), 13-26.
Bagherian, R., Bahaman, A. S., Asnarulkhadi, A. S., & Shamsuddin, A. (2009). Factors influencing local people’s participation in watershed management programs in Iran. American-Eurasian. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 6(5), 532-538.
Bakker, Y. W., Koning, J. D., & Tatenhove, J. V. (2019). Resilience and social capital: The engagement of fisheries communities in marine spatial planning. Marine Policy, 99, 132-139.
Bryan, E., Ringler, C., Okoba, B., Roncoli, C., Silvestri, S., & Herrero, M. (2013). Adapting agriculture to climate change in Kenya: household strategies and determinants. Journal of Environmental Management, 1(14), 26-35.
Deeming, H., Fordham, M., Kuhlicke, Ch., Pedoth, L., Schneiderbauer, S., & Shreve, Ch. (2019). Farming community disaster resilience. Published by John Wiley & Sons.  288 Pp.
Deressa, T. T., Hassan, R. M., Ringler, C., Alemu, T., & Yesuf, M. (2009). Determinants of farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 248-255.
Donatti, C. I., Harvey, C. A. M., Martinez-Rodriguez, R., Vignola. R., Rodriguez., & Manuel, C. (2019). Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in Central America and Mexico: current knowledge and research gaps. Climate and Development, 11(3), 1-23.
Etkin, D.,  & Haque, Ch. (2012). Disaster risk and vulnerability: mitigation through mobilizing communities and partnerships. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, Political Science - 300 Pp.
Field, J. (2005). Social capital and lifelong learning. Bristol: The Policy Press. 184Pp.
Gambo Boukary, A., Diaw, A., & Wünscher, T. (2016). Factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. Sustainability, 8(181), 1-10.
Ghomian, Z., & Yousefian, Sh. (2017). Natural disaster in the middle-east and North Africa with a focus on Iran: 1900-2015. Health Emergencies Disaster Quarterly, 2(2), 53-62.
Hang, N. T .T, Cuong, T. H., Hong, N. Th. Kh., Azadi, H., & Lebailly, Ph. (2016). Factors contributing to household-resilience capacity to farming risks: Case study of clam farming in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam. XXXIIèmes Journées du développement ATM 2016: Catastrophes, vulnérabilités et résiliences dans les pays en développement. Lille, France.
Harvey, C. A., Rakotobe, Z. L., Rao, N. S., Dave, R., Razafimahatratra, H., Rabarijohn, R. H., ... & MacKinnon, J. L. (2014). Extreme vulnerability of smallholder farmers to agricultural risks and climate change in Madagascar. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1639), 20130089.
Hossain, M. S., Rahman, M. F., Thompson, S., Nabi, M. R., & Kibria, M. M. (2013). Climate change resilience assesssment using livelihood assets of coastal fishing community in Nijhum Dwip, Bangladesh. Pertanika Journal of Science & Technology, 21(2), 397-422.
Jacobi, J., Bottazzi, P., Pillco, M. I., Schneider, M., & Rist, S. (2017). Building farm resilience in a changing climate: challenges, potentials, and ways forward for smallholder Cocoa production in Bolivia. Identifying emerging issues in disaster risk reduction, migration, climate change and sustainable development. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, chapter 14:231-247.
Ketabi, M., Adibi Sedhe., M., Ghasemi, V., & Sadeghi Dehchshmeh, S. (2010). Estimating the social trust and influencing factors on it in the centers of cities of Chaharmahal-va-Bachtyari Province. Journal of Applied Sociology, 21(4), 97-122.
Khaledi, F.,  Zarafshani, K., Mirakzadeh, A. A., & Sharafi , L. (2015). Factors influencing on farmers’ adaptive capacities to climate change (wheat farmers in Sarpole Zahab Township, Kermanshah Province). Journal of Rural Research, 6(3), 655-675.
Krasny, M. E., Lundholm, C., & Plummer, R. (2013). Resilience in social-ecological systems: the role of learning and education. Published by Routledge. 224Pp.
Ledogar, R. J., & Fleming, J. (2008). Social capital and resilience: a review of concepts and selected literature relevant to aboriginal youth resilience research. Pimatisiwin.  6(2), 25-46.
Makoka, D., & Kaplan, M. (2005). Poverty and vulnerability. University of Bonn, Centre for Development Research.
Mangal, V. (2011). Presence of resilience, self-organization and hierarchy in web 2.0. International Conference on Advancements in Information Technology. With workshop of ICBMG 2011IPCSIT vol.20. IACSIT Press, Singapore. 139-143.
Mbakahya G.M., & Ndiema A.C. (2015). Farming households’ vulnerability and resilience to climate change in Nambale sub-county of Kenya. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 4(6), 1608 – 1617.
Norouzi, M., & Hayati, D. (2018). Sustainability of livelihoods among farmers' community in Kermanshah Province, Iran: A comparison of farmers' attitude based on their characteristics. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 60(6), 1099-1113.
Omrani, M., &  Farajzadeh, Z. (2016). Capital role in Iranian agriculture growth. Journal of Agricultural Economics Research, 7(28), 1-19.
Payvandi, B. (2010). Self-sufficiency of inputs, self-sufficiency of agriculture. Monthly Bulletin of Golestan Province Agricultural Jihad Organization, 9(112), 11.
Pereza, C., Jones, E. M., Kristjanson, P., Cramer, L., Thornton, P. K., Förch, W., & Barahona, C. (2015). How resilient are farming households and communities to a changing climate in Africa? A gender-based perspective. Global Environmental Change, 34, 95-107.
Philip, D., & Rayhan, M. I. (2004). Vulnerability and Poverty: What are the causes and how are they related. ZEF Bonn, center for Development Research, University of Bonn, Germany.
Pratiwi, N. A. H., Karuniasa, M., & Suroso, D. S. A. (2018). Self-organization and crop insurance to enhance livelihood resilience: a case of rice farmers in Cirebon Regency, Indonesia. ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement, 2(1), 1-14.
Quandt, A., Neufeldt, H., & McCabe, J., T. (2018). Building livelihood resilience: what role does agroforestry play? Journal of Climate and Development, 6(11), 485-500.
Ramezani, M., Zarafshani, K., & Sharafi, L. (2017). Drought vulnerability assessment among wheat farmers in Esfahan Township. Agricultural Extension and Education Research, 10(1), 1-16.
Ricciardi, V., Ramankutty, N., Mehrabi, Z., Jarvis, L., & Chookolingo, B. (2018). How much of the world's food do smallholders produce? Global Food Security, 17, 64–72.
Shahrokhi, Sardou S., & Nooripoor, M. (2015). Assessment of factors affecting quality of life in centers of rural districts, Jiroft County. Journal Space Economy & Rural Development, 4(12), 19-40.
Shirali, G. A., Mohammad Salahi, L., & Zare Sakhvidi, M. J. (2016). Expanding resilience indicators: A case study on buffering capacity indicator in a process plant. Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences. 8(3), e35384.
Sojasi Ghidari, H., Sadeqlu, T., & Shakourifard, E. (2016). Measuring the livelihood properties in rural areas using a sustainable livelihood approach (Case study: Rural areas of Taybad County). Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 5(1), 197-215.
Speranza, Ch. I. (2013). Buffer capacity: Capturing a dimension of resilience to climate change in African smallholder agriculture. Regional Environmental Change, 13(3), 521-535.
Speranza, Ch. I., Wismann, U., & Rist, S. (2014). An indicator framework for assessing livelihood resilience in the context of social-ecological dynamics. Journal of Global Environmental Change, 28, 109-119.
Tanner, Th., Lewis, D., Wrathall, D., Bronen, R., Cradock-Henry, N., Huq, S., Lawless, Ch., Nawrotzki, R., Prasad., V., Rahman, A., Alaniz, R., King, K., McNamara, K., Nadiruzzaman, Md., Henly-shepared, S., & Thomalla, F. (2015). Livelihood resilience in the face of climate change. Nature Climate Change, 5, 23-26.
Taylor, N., & Goodrich, C. (2011). Social capital, resilience and livelihoods: Core concepts for understanding community adaptation to social impacts. Paper presented at the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) annual meeting at Puebla, Mexico, 28 May-4 June: 1-7.
Tellman, B., Alaniz, R., Rivera, A., & Contreras, D. (2014). Violence as an obstacle to livelihood resilience in the context of climate change. UNU-EHS Working Paper Series, No.3. Bonn: United Nations University Institute of Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS).
Toader, M., & Roman, Gh. V. (2015). Family farming– examples for rural communities' development. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 6, 89 – 94.
Wolbring, G. (2009).  A culture of neglect: climate discourse and disabled people.  M/C Journal. 12(4), 1-8.
Yasoori, M., Ramezannezhad, Y., & Shayan, H. (2016). Measurement and analysis of effective factors on public participation in rural management process, with an emphasis on councils (Case study: Asalem District). Human Geography Research Quarterly, 48(1), 89-104.
Yazdanpanah, M., Forozai, M., & Zobaidi, T. (2017). Determining the factors influencing on farmers’ adaptation behaviors in dealing with climate change and global warming: A Case Study in Bavi Township, Khuzestan. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 48 (1), 137-147.
Zereyesus, Y. A., Embaye, W. T., Tsiboe, F., & Amanor-Boadu, V. (2017). Implications of non-farm work to vulnerability to food poverty-recent evidence from Northern Ghana. World Development, 91,113–124.