Document Type : Review Article


1 Assistant professor, Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari 48181-68984, Iran

2 Head of Agricultural Extension and Communication Group, Faculty of Life Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany

3 Ph.D. of Agricultural Extension and Education, Shiraz University, Iran

4 Professor of Agricultural Extension and Education, Department of Agricultural Extension & Education, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


In recent decades, climate change and frequent droughts have had great impacts on farming systems and have led farmers to become accustomed to these conditions, which are causing problems, especially, for smallholder farmers. With the severe weather events and their adverse effects, especially in arid regions, farmers' adaptation to these changes is an indisputable and critical strategy. Thus, farmers need to make complex decisions about mitigating the adverse effects of climate change to take advantage of newer opportunities as possible. The understanding of the process by which farmers decide to stand facing climate changes and probing into the determinants of the process provide research evidence for policymakers to assist farmers to adapt to climate change effects. This article would establish a conceptual framework, inclusive of factors influencing farmers’ decision-making to adapt to climate change, and would clarify causal relations among these factors. According to the results, household characteristics, economic factors, knowledge, motives and goals, perceived outcomes of adaptation, social, personal norms, perception of climate change, perceived risk and obstacles, attitude towards climate change, prospective perception of climate change, the evaluation of climate change, and adaptation initiatives could influence farmers’ decisions to adapt to climate change.

Graphical Abstract

Farmers’ Decision-Making Process under Climate Change: Developing a Conceptual Framework


  • Serious challenges of smallholder farmers in a risky environment,
  • Complex decision making of farmers to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change,
  • Factors affecting farmers' decisions in facing the climate change.


Main Subjects

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