Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Student in Agricultural Extension and Education Department, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Innovations and Training, Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education, Tehran, Iran.


Experts believe that a solution to avoid the inefficiency of university graduates, especially graduates in Agriculture, is to revise the practical courses, especially internships, and transform and amend them. Taking this point into account, this study aimed to design a model for the internship course in the Iranian Agriculture Higher Education using the Delphi technique. The mental basis of this study was Akker’s ten-phase model. The panel was composed of the university professors supervising agriculture internship courses (N=34) and the employers to whom the students referred for passing the course (N=63). The results from the perspective of employers and the university professors, after three Delphi rounds, determined items for ten components of internship courses, i.e., logic, objectives and goals, content, learning activities, the role of trainer, materials, and resources, classification, location, time, evaluation and appraisal, which were used as the basis for the development of an internship model.

Graphical Abstract

Designing a Model for Internship Course in Higher Agricultural Education System Using the Delphi Technique: Combining Academicians and Practitioner Viewpoints


  • The research model included objectives, aims, content, activities, the role of teacher, materials and resources, grouping, location, time, assessment, and evaluation of the internship course.
  • The purpose of an internship course is for students to gain real-world experience, acquire new skills.
  • Employers and university professors identified the acquisition of real-world skills as one of the objectives of these courses.
  • Interns should be grouped according to certain factors, such as the intern’s interests.


Main Subjects