This study aimed to determine whether dual-labor markets increase the income and consequently the food security of rural households and whether they improve the general health of the heads of these households. To achieve this goal, a descriptive cross-sectional survey with comparative designs was conducted to explore the relationship among the research variables. The statistical population was composed of the heads of rural households living in the rural district of Mahidasht in Kermanshah County, Kermanshah province, Iran. Overall, 283 household heads, who were chosen by the systematic sampling method, were interviewed. Food security and general health were measured using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM-18) and the 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The validity of the research instrument was assessed and confirmed by an expert panel at Razi University and its reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis was performed in the SPSS16 and AMOS software packages. The results show that dual-labor markets significantly increase the income of the household heads who work in secondary labor forces, and as a result, they enjoy a higher degree of food security in their households. However, a closer examination reveals that the income generated from the secondary labor market has a significant inverse correlation with the general health of these household heads, as they are more likely to suffer from severe depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction (compared to the household heads who were not working in secondary labor forces). In the end, the paper provides several recommendations for local officials, planners, and policymakers.