Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, School of Agriculture, Shiraz University.

2 Department of Agricultural Extension School of agriculture,Shiraz University, Shiraz. Iran.

3 Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Global Footprint Network, 312 Clay Street, Oakland, CA 94607-3510, USA


Iran has many critical environmental changes and challenges, especially in agricultural development. These challenges are due to land reform and subsequent modernization. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the paradigmatic trend of agricultural environmental management of Iran. The study was accomplished through reviewing archival research, different documents and databases worldwide using content analysis. Different global paradigmatic perspectives and strategies in terms of environmental management were reviewed. By reviewing different environmental laws, rules, regulations and activities in Iran, three distinct phases in environmental management including enthusiasm for modernization activities (1962- 1974); concerns about environmental issues (1974- 2005); and crisis of environmental management (2005-present) can be seen. The most important problems contributing to an unsustainable environment in these three phases and the reasons for the failures of macro-policies are addressed. There is an inappropriate paradigm in environmental management thinking of Iran in terms of sustainability as well as an inconsistency between environmental paradigms and strategies in different periods of time. Based on findings, the dominant perspective of environmental management was frontier economics with highly emphasis on economic issues and less considered to ecological problems over time. Thus, environmental degradation increase was occurred and just some sporadic strategies were accomplished by authorities instead of collaborative systematic actions. A basic paradigm shift in environmental activities is necessary from technocentrism toward ecocentrism in order to sustainable agriculture.


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