Document Type : Review Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of Business Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Rasht, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Iran


Today, companies are well aware of the significance of sales and attempt to stabilize and/or improve their status in the competitive climate of the markets by increasing their sales. The present qualitative research aims to enumerate the factors influencing sales effectiveness using grounded theory to identify the categories underpinning the sales effectiveness of companies. The research data were collected from 10 experts in the food industry in Guilan province, Iran. The collected data were analyzed by coding in the MAXQDA software. Results show that 287 concepts (in terms of repetition) were extracted from the interviews at the first step (open coding). By considering the relationship of the concepts at the axial coding level (the second step), they were narrowed to 26 categories, and finally, six themes were identified at the third step (selective coding). These themes, i.e., the factors underpinning organizational sales effectiveness, include the firms' strategic orientations, marketing capabilities, sales control management, salesforce performance, and environmental factors. As well, sales effectiveness was decomposed into the categories of investment, profitability, market share, and customer satisfaction.


  • Companies use strategic tools such as innovation, cost orientation, branding and product differentiation to create a competitive advantage
  • Predicting the future needs of customers and paying attention to their tastes, reviewing and identifying competitors and using a strong and creative management team to eliminate unnecessary items is very important.
  • Customer relationship management, product management, proper pricing, proper and professional distribution, product promotion, sales area design and retail network management were among the most important marketing capabilities mentioned in the interviews.