Original Article Family and social enterprise
1. Exploring the Role of Social Capital in Agricultural Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition: Application of Smart PLS

Mojgan Khoshmaram; Kiumars Zarafshani; Amirhossein Alibaygi; Aliasghar Mirakzadeh

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 395-406

Abstract
  Although agriculture has a major role in economy, in general, and employment opportunities for unemployed population,in particular, limited ability of individuals to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities in agriculture has reduced the share ofagriculture in employment. Therefore, the enhancement ...  Read More

Original Article Decision-making
2. Does Agriculture Price Index Respond to Exchange Rate Fluctuations in Iran?

Mohammad Abdi Seyyedkolaee; Amir Mansour Tehranchian; Ahmad Jafari Samimi; Seyyed Mojtaba Mojaverian

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 407-413

Abstract
  Since some raw materials, semi manufactured, intermediate and capital goods in agricultural sector are imported, the exchange rate fluctuations can affect the cost price of products in this sector. Recently, we are facing considerable fluctuations in exchange rate that has an important impact on all ...  Read More

Original Article Farming Systems
3. Impact of Climate Variability on Cool Weather Crop Yield in Ethiopia

Arega Ademe; Belay Kassa; Degye Goshu; Majaliwa Mwanjalolo

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 415-428

Abstract
  The research examined effect of climate variability on yield of the two dominant cool weather cereals (wheat and barley) in central highland and Arssi grain plough farming systems of Ethiopia using eight round unbalanced panel data (1994-2014). The stochastic frontier model result revealed that production ...  Read More

Original Article Strategic planning
4. Price Relationships and Spillover Effects of Price Volatilities in Iran's Rice Market

Mohammad Kavoosi-Kalashami; Mohsen Kavoosi Kalashami

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 429-438

Abstract
  Rice plays an especial role in Iranian households' nutrition basket. The volatilities of its price during recent years caused consumers' dissatisfaction. This paper investigates spillover effects of price volatilities (at the wholesale and retail levels) in the Guilan Province rice market. The Generalized ...  Read More

Original Article Farm Management
5. Musculoskeletal Disorders, Energy Use, and Costs of Human Labor for Paddy Cultivation in Northern Iran

Amin Nikkhah; Zeynab Kougir-Chegini; Armaghan Kosari-Moghadam; Farima Nikkhah

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 439-446

Abstract
  In this study, musculoskeletal disorders, energy consumption and input costs of paddy labors have been studied in cultivation, crop protection, and harvesting rice in Northern Iran, Guilan province. The sample size of the study consisted of 74 paddy workers of the study region. The data were collected ...  Read More

Original Article Decision-making
6. Farmers Willingness to Pay for Crop Insurance: Evidence from Eastern Ghana

Emmanuella Ellis

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 447-463

Abstract
  Crop insurance is a risk management tool with the potential of dealing with risk more efficiently, the study uses a dichotomous contingent valuation method to elicit the willingness to pay for crop insurance among cereal farmers in the Eastern region of Ghana. The study employed descriptive statistical ...  Read More

Original Article Education and training
7. Effectiveness Evaluation of Rural Extension Education Programs (The Case of Sheep Breeders in Pasargad Township, Iran)

Taher Azizi-Khalkheili; Masoud Bijani; Mohammad Reza Shahpasand; Farzad Farbod

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 465-476

Abstract
  Since a lot of material and human expenditure are spent for implementing extension education programs for rural people, one of the most important aspects of these programs is “effectiveness evaluation” and the rate of accomplishing program objectives, as well as determining program obstacles ...  Read More

Original Article Farm Management
8. Using the PILOTE Model to Improve Water Productivity for Rice in Rasht, North of Iran

Maryam Shadpour; Mohammadreza Khaledian; MohammadHassan Biglouei; Mojtaba Rezaei

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 477-487

Abstract
  In order to calibrate and validate the PILOTE model for rice in a humid climate, this study was carried in a randomized complete block design with three replications on a popular local variety, Hashemi, during 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006 and 2007 crop seasons. This research was done at the Rice Research Institute ...  Read More

Original Article Environmental policy and management
9. An Investigation into Income Distribution in Zanjan Province: A Case Study of Rural Households in Abhar ‍County

Mostafa Teimoori; Nina Rajaee; Mohammad hadi Hajian

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 489-496

Abstract
  The present study aims to investigate income distribution in Zanjan Province, for which the statistics of cost-income of the households in rural areas of Abhar County were used. They were available in the Statistical Center of Iran. In order to measure income distribution, the indicators of Lorenz curve, ...  Read More

Original Article Education and training
10. Seed Potato Management among Potato Growers in Freydunshahr County (Isfahan Province), Iran

Asghar Bagheri; Mojtaba Sookhtanlou

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 497-508

Abstract
  This study investigated the mechanisms of seed potato management by potato growers of Freydunshahr County in Isfahan province. Survey research method was used in this study. A sample of 250 potato growers (N=725) was selected for data collection. Stratified random sampling method was used. The research ...  Read More

Original Article Education and training
11. Factors Affecting the Professional Development of Faculty Members: A Case Study of Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Roya Eshraghi

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 509-515

Abstract
  Professional development is a continuous process of individual and experimental tests that must empower individual educators to make complex decisions; to identify and to solve problems; to connect theory and practice in learners’ output; and to enable educators to offer learning opportunities ...  Read More

Original Article
12. External Financing Method: Financing through Debt and Stock Issuance

Reza Aghajan Nashtaei; Ebrahim Chirani; Mehrdad Goudarzvand Chegini

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 517-524

Abstract
  Countries need short, medium, and long-term investment plans for production growth and development. Different sources for these investments can be supplied through retained profit, stock issuance, and bank loans, or a combination them. Institutions and firms need huge amount of capitals for their survival, ...  Read More

Original Article Strategic planning
13. Feasibility of Plain Rural Type Gathering towards Sustainable Development in Guilan Province, Iran

Nasrollah MolaeiHashjin; Eisa Pourramzan

Volume 7, Issue 4 , Autumn 2017, Pages 525-533

Abstract
  The gathering of rural type in Guilan plains is a kind of planning for physical development of rural settlements that aims at changing dwellers' lifestyle from a dispersed to a semi-dispersed state. This change will reduce the problems and difficulties of villages. In addition, it is an optimal way to ...  Read More